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Capital in excess par

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Definition of Capital in excess par

Capital In Excess Par Image 1

Capital in excess par

Amounts in excess of the par value or stated value that have been paid by the public to acquire stock in the company; synonymous with additional paid-in capital.



Related Terms:

CAPITAL IN EXCESS OF PAR VALUE

What a company collected when it sold stock for more than the par value per share.


Average cost of capital

A firm's required payout to the bondholders and to the stockholders expressed as a
percentage of capital contributed to the firm. Average cost of capital is computed by dividing the total
required cost of capital by the total amount of contributed capital.


BONDPAR

A system that monitors and evaluates the performance of a fixed-income portfolio , as well as the
individual securities held in the portfolio. BONDpar decomposes the return into those elements beyond the
manager's control--such as the interest rate environment and client-imposed duration policy constraints--and
those that the management process contributes to, such as interest rate management, sector/quality allocations,
and individual bond selection.


Capital

Money invested in a firm.


Capital account

Net result of public and private international investment and lending activities.



Capital allocation

decision Allocation of invested funds between risk-free assets versus the risky portfolio.


Capital asset pricing model (CAPM)

An economic theory that describes the relationship between risk and
expected return, and serves as a model for the pricing of risky securities. The CAPM asserts that the only risk
that is priced by rational investors is systematic risk, because that risk cannot be eliminated by diversification.
The CAPM says that the expected return of a security or a portfolio is equal to the rate on a risk-free security
plus a risk premium.


Capital In Excess Par Image 2

Capital budget

A firm's set of planned capital expenditures.


Capital budgeting

The process of choosing the firm's long-term capital assets.


Capital expenditures

Amount used during a particular period to acquire or improve long-term assets such as
property, plant or equipment.


Capital flight

The transfer of capital abroad in response to fears of political risk.


Capital gain

When a stock is sold for a profit, it's the difference between the net sales price of securities and
their net cost, or original basis. If a stock is sold below cost, the difference is a capital loss.


Capital gains yield

The price change portion of a stock's return.


Capital lease

A lease obligation that has to be capitalized on the balance sheet.


Capital loss

The difference between the net cost of a security and the net sale price, if that security is sold at a loss.


Capital market

The market for trading long-term debt instruments (those that mature in more than one year).


Capital market efficiency

Reflects the relative amount of wealth wasted in making transactions. An efficient
capital market allows the transfer of assets with little wealth loss. See: efficient market hypothesis.


Capital market imperfections view

The view that issuing debt is generally valuable but that the firm's
optimal choice of capital structure is a dynamic process that involves the other views of capital structure (net
corporate/personal tax, agency cost, bankruptcy cost, and pecking order), which result from considerations of
asymmetric information, asymmetric taxes, and transaction costs.



Capital market line (CML)

The line defined by every combination of the risk-free asset and the market portfolio.


Capital rationing

Placing one or more limits on the amount of new investment undertaken by a firm, either
by using a higher cost of capital, or by setting a maximum on parts of, and/or the entirety of, the capital
budget.


Capital structure

The makeup of the liabilities and stockholders' equity side of the balance sheet, especially
the ratio of debt to equity and the mixture of short and long maturities.


Capital surplus

Amounts of directly contributed equity capital in excess of the par value.


Capitalization

The debt and/or equity mix that fund a firm's assets.


Capitalization method

A method of constructing a replicating portfolio in which the manager purchases a
number of the largest-capitalized names in the index stock in proportion to their capitalization.


Capitalization ratios

Also called financial leverage ratios, these ratios compare debt to total capitalization
and thus reflect the extent to which a corporation is trading on its equity. capitalization ratios can be
interpreted only in the context of the stability of industry and company earnings and cash flow.


Capitalization table

A table showing the capitalization of a firm, which typically includes the amount of
capital obtained from each source - long-term debt and common equity - and the respective capitalization
ratios.


Capitalized

Recorded in asset accounts and then depreciated or amortized, as is appropriate for expenditures
for items with useful lives greater than one year.


Capitalized interest

Interest that is not immediately expensed, but rather is considered as an asset and is then
amortized through the income statement over time.



Comparative credit analysis

A method of analysis in which a firm is compared to others that have a desired
target debt rating in order to infer an appropriate financial ratio target.


Comparison universe

The collection of money managers of similar investment style used for assessing
relative performance of a portfolio manager.


Complete capital market

A market in which there is a distinct marketable security for each and every
possible outcome.


Conversion parity price

Related:Market conversion price


Cost of capital

The required return for a capital budgeting project.


Cost of limited partner capital

The discount rate that equates the after-tax inflows with outflows for capital
raised from limited partners.


Counterpart items

In the balance of payments, counterpart items are analogous to unrequited transfers in the
current account. They arise because the double-entry system in balance of payments accounting and refer to
adjustments in reserves owing to monetization or demonetization of gold, allocation or cancellation of SDRs,
and revaluation of the various components of total reserves.


Counterparties

The parties to an interest rate swap.


Counterparty Party

on the other side of a trade or transaction.


Counterparty risk

The risk that the other party to an agreement will default. In an options contract, the risk
to the option buyer that the option writer will not buy or sell the underlying as agreed.
Country economic risk Developments in a national economy that can affect the outcome of an international
financial transaction.


Debt service parity approach

An analysis wherein the alternatives under consideration will provide the firm
with the exact same schedule of after-tax debt payments (including both interest and principal).


Dedicated capital

Total par value (number of shares issued, multiplied by the par value of each share). Also
called dedicated value.


Efficient capital market

A market in which new information is very quickly reflected accurately in share
prices.


Excess reserves

Any excess of actual reserves above required reserves.


Excess return on the market portfolio

The difference between the return on the market portfolio and the
riskless rate.


Excess returns

Also called abnormal returns, returns in excess of those required by some asset pricing model.


Fisher's separation theorem

The firm's choice of investments is separate from its owner's attitudes towards
investments. Also refered to as portfolio separation theorem.


General partner

A partner who has unlimited liability for the obligations of the partnership.


General partnership

A partnership in which all partners are general partners.


Golden parachute

Compensation paid to top-level management by a target firm if a takeover occurs.


Hard capital rationing

capital rationing that under no circumstances can be violated.


Human capital

The unique capabilities and expertise of individuals.


Interest rate parity theorem

Interest rate differential between two countries is equal to the difference
between the forward foreign exchange rate and the spot rate.


Issued share capital

Total amount of shares that are in issue. Related: outstanding shares.


Legal capital

Value at which a company's shares are recorded in its books.


Limited partner

A partner who has limited legal liability for the obligations of the partnership.


Limited partnership

A partnership that includes one or more partners who have limited liability.


Long-term debt/capitalization

Indicator of financial leverage. Shows long-term debt as a proportion of the
capital available. Determined by dividing long-term debt by the sum of long-term debt, preferred stock and
common stockholder equity.


Limited partnership

A partnership that includes one or more partners who have limited liability.


Market capitalization

The total dollar value of all outstanding shares. Computed as shares times current
market price. It is a measure of corporate size.


Market capitalization rate

Expected return on a security. The market-consensus estimate of the appropriate
discount rate for a firm's cash flows.


Master limited partnership (MLP)

A publicly traded limited partnership.


Net working capital

Current assets minus current liabilities. Often simply referred to as working capital.


Non-parallel shift in the yield curve

A shift in the yield curve in which yields do not change by the same
number of basis points for every maturity. Related: parallel shift in the yield curve.


Nondiversifiability of human capital

The difficulty of diversifying one's human capital (the unique
capabilities and expertise of individuals) and employment effort.


Opportunity cost of capital

Expected return that is foregone by investing in a project rather than in
comparable financial securities.


Other capital

In the balance of payments, other capital is a residual category that groups all the capital
transactions that have not been included in direct investment, portfolio investment, and reserves categories. It
is divided into long-term capital and short-term capital and, because of its residual status, can differ from
country to country. Generally speaking, other long-term capital includes most non-negotiable instruments of a
year or more like bank loans and mortgages. Other short-term capital includes financial assets of less than a
year such as currency, deposits, and bills.


Outstanding share capital

Issued share capital less the par value of shares that are held in the company's treasury.


Par value

Also called the maturity value or face value, the amount that the issuer agrees to pay at the maturity date.


Parallel loan

A process whereby two companies in different countries borrow each other's currency for a
specific period of time, and repay the other's currency at an agreed maturity for the purpose of reducing
foreign exchange risk. Also referred to as back-to-back loans.


Parallel shift in the yield curve

A shift in the yield curve in which the change in the yield on all maturities is
the same number of basis points. In other words, if the 3 month T-bill increases 100 basis points (one
percent), then the 6 month, 1 year, 5 year, 10 year, 20 year, and 30 year rates increase by 100 basis points as
well.
Related: Non-parallel shift in the yield curve.


Parameter

A representation that characterizes a part of a model (e.g. a growth rate), the value of which is
determined outside of the model. See: exogenous variable.


Parity value

Related:conversion value


Participating GIC

A guaranteed investment contract where the policyholder is not guaranteed a crediting
rate, but instead receives a return based on the actual experience of the portfolio managed by the life company.


Participating fees

The portion of total fees in a syndicated credit that go to the participating banks.


Partnership

Shared ownership among two or more individuals, some of whom may, but do not necessarily,
have limited liability. See: general partnership, limited partnership, and master limited partnership.


Pecking-order view (of capital structure)

The argument that external financing transaction costs, especially
those associated with the problem of adverse selection, create a dynamic environment in which firms have a
preference, or pecking-order of preferred sources of financing, when all else is equal. Internally generated
funds are the most preferred, new debt is next, debt-equity hybrids are next, and new equity is the least
preferred source.


Perfect capital market

A market in which there are never any arbitrage opportunities.


Perfect market view (of capital structure)

Analysis of a firm's capital structure decision, which shows the
irrelevance of capital structure in a perfect capital market.


Personal tax view (of capital structure)

The argument that the difference in personal tax rates between
income from debt and income from equity eliminates the disadvantage from the double taxation (corporate
and personal) of income from equity.


PIBOR (Paris Interbank Offer Rate)

The deposit rate on interbank transactions in the Eurocurrency market
quoted in paris.


Pie model of capital structure

A model of the debt/equity ratio of the firms, graphically depicted in slices of
a pie that represent the value of the firm in the capital markets.


Planned capital expenditure program

capital expenditure program as outlined in the corporate financial plan.


Portfolio separation theorem

An investor's choice of a risky investment portfolio is separate from his
attitude towards risk. Related:Fisher's separation theorem.


Pro forma capital structure analysis

A method of analyzing the impact of alternative capital structure
choices on a firm's credit statistics and reported financial results, especially to determine whether the firm will
be able to use projected tax shield benefits fully.


Purchasing power parity

The notion that the ratio between domestic and foreign price levels should equal
the equilibrium exchange rate between domestic and foreign currencies.


Put-call parity relationship

The relationship between the price of a put and the price of a call on the same
underlying security with the same expiration date, which prevents arbitrage opportunities. Holding the stock
and buying a put will deliver the exact payoff as buying one call and investing the present value (PV) of the
exercise price. The call value equals C=S+P-PV(k).


Real capital

Wealth that can be represented in financial terms, such as savings account balances, financial
securities, and real estate.


Relative purchasing power parity (RPPP)

Idea that the rate of change in the price level of commodities in
one country relative to the price level in another determines the rate of change of the exchange rate between
the two countries' currencies.


Separation property

The property that portfolio choice can be separated into two independent tasks: 1)
determination of the optimal risky portfolio, which is a purely technical problem, and 2) the personal choice
of the best mix of the risky portfolio and the risk-free asset.


Separation theorem

The value of an investment to an individual is not dependent on consumption
preferences. All investors will want to accept or reject the same investment projects by using the NPV rule,
regardless of personal preference.


"Soft" Capital Rationing

capital rationing that under certain circumstances can be violated or even viewed
as made up of targets rather than absolute constraints.


Spot futures parity theorem

Describes the theoretically correct relationship between spot and futures prices.
Violation of the parity relationship gives rise to arbitrage opportunities.


Static theory of capital structure

Theory that the firm's capital structure is determined by a trade-off of the
value of tax shields against the costs of bankruptcy.


Strip mortgage participation certificate (strip PC)

Ownership interests in specified mortgages purchased
by Freddie Mac from a single seller in exchange for strip PCs representing interests in the same mortgages.
Stripped bond Bond that can be subdivided into a series of zero-coupon bonds.


Subpart F

Special category of foreign-source "unearned" income that is currently taxed by the IRS whether
or not it is remitted to the U.S.


Two-fund separation theorem

The theoretical result that all investors will hold a combination of the riskfree
asset and the market portfolio.


Venture capital

An investment in a start-up business that is perceived to have excellent growth prospects but
does not have access to capital markets. Type of financing sought by early-stage companies seeking to grow rapidly.


Weighted average cost of capital

Expected return on a portfolio of all the firm's securities. Used as a hurdle
rate for capital investment.


Working capital

Defined as the difference in current assets and current liabilities (excluding short-term
debt). Current assets may or may not include cash and cash equivalents, depending on the company.


Working capital management

The management of current assets and current liabilities to maximize shortterm liquidity.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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