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budgeting

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Definition of budgeting

Budgeting Image 1

budgeting

the process of formalizing plans and committing
them to written, financial terms



Related Terms:

Activity-based budgeting

A method of budgeting that develops budgets based on expected activities and cost drivers – see also activity-based costing.


activity-based budgeting (ABB)

planning approach applying activity drivers to estimate the levels and costs of activities necessary to provide the budgeted quantity and
quality of production


Capital budgeting

The process of choosing the firm's long-term capital assets.


capital budgeting

Refers generally to analysis procedures for ranking
investments, given a limited amount of total capital that has to be allocated
among the various capital investment opportunities of a business.
The term sometimes is used interchangeably with the analysis techniques
themselves, such as calculating present value, net present value,
and the internal rate of return of investments.


Capital Budgeting

The process of ranking and selecting investment alternatives and
capital expenditures



capital budgeting

a process of evaluating an entity’s proposed
long-range projects or courses of future activity for
the purpose of allocating limited resources to desirable
projects


Capital budgeting

The series of steps one follows when justifying the decision to purchase
an asset, usually including an analysis of costs and related benefits, which
should include a discounted cash flow analysis of the stream of all future cash flows
resulting from the purchase of the asset.


Budgeting Image 2

capital budgeting decision

Decision as to which real assets the firm should acquire.


continuous budgeting

a process in which there is a rolling
twelve-month budget; a new budget month (twelve months
into the future) is added as each current month expires


Planning, programming and budgeting system (PPBS)

A method of budgeting in which budgets are allocated to projects or programmes rather than to responsibility centres.


program budgeting

an approach to budgeting that relates
resource inputs to service outputs


zero-base budgeting

a comprehensive budgeting process
that systematically considers the priorities and alternatives
for current and proposed activities in relation to organization
objectives; it requires the rejustification of ongoing activities


Zero-based budgeting

A method of budgeting that ignores historical budgetary allocations and identifies the costs that are necessary to implement agreed strategies.


Aggregate planning

A budgeting process using summary-level information to
derive various budget models, usually at the product family level.


budget slack

an intentional underestimation of revenues
and/or overestimation of expenses in a budgeting process
for the purpose of including deviations that are likely to
occur so that results will occur within budget limits


cash flow

the receipt or disbursement of cash; when related
to capital budgeting, cash flows arise from the purchase,
operation, and disposition of a capital asset


Budgeting Image 3

controller

Officer responsible for budgeting, accounting, and auditing.


Cost of capital

The required return for a capital budgeting project.



Cost of capital

The blended cost of a company’s currently outstanding debt instruments
and equity, weighted by the comparative proportions of each one. During a capital
budgeting review, the expected return from a capital purchase must exceed this cost
of capital, or else a company will experience a net loss on the transaction.


Cost of Capital

The discount rate that should be used in the capital budgeting process.


Dependent

Acceptance of a capital budgeting project contingent on the acceptance of another project.


Direct estimate method

A method of cash budgeting based on detailed estimates of cash receipts and cash
disbursements category by category.


Hurdle rate

The required return in capital budgeting.


Internal rate of return

The rate of return at which the present value of a series of future
cash flows equals the present value of all associated costs. This measure is most
commonly used in capital budgeting.


Payback method

A capital budgeting analysis method that calculates the amount of
time it will take to recoup the investment in a capital asset, with no regard for the
time cost of money.


Post-audit

A set of procedures for evaluating a capital budgeting decision after the fact.


Profiling

A method of budgeting that takes into account seasonal fluctuations and estimates of when revenues will be earned and costs will be incurred over each month in the budget period.


revenue center

a responsibility center for which a manager is accountable only for the generation of revenues and has no control over setting selling prices, or budgeting or incurring costs



rolling budget

see continuous budgeting


Rolling budgets

A method of budgeting in which as each month passes, an additional budget month is added such that there is always a 12-month budget.


Salvage Value

The value of a capital asset at end of a specified period. It is the current market price of an asset being considered for replacement in capital budgeting.


Statement-of-cash-flows method

A method of cash budgeting that is organized along the lines of the statement of cash flows.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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