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Definition of autonomation

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autonomation

the use of equipment that has been programmed to sense certain conditions



Related Terms:

Acceleration Clause

Clause causing repayment of a debt, if specified events occur or are not met.


Automated Clearing House (ACH)

A collection of 32 regional electronic interbank networks used to
process transactions electronically with a guaranteed one-day bank collection float.


Automated Clearing House (ACH)

A banking clearinghouse that processes direct
deposit transfers.


Bargain-purchase-price option

Gives the lessee the option to purchase the asset at a price below fair market
value when the lease expires.


Block house

Brokerage firms that help to find potential buyers or sellers of large block trades.



Cash Flow Provided or Used from Financing Activities

Cash receipts and payments involving
liability and stockholders' equity items, including obtaining cash from creditors and repaying
the amounts borrowed and obtaining capital from owners and providing them with a return on,
and a return of, their investments.


Cash Flow Provided or Used from Investing Activities

Cash receipts and payments involving
long-term assets, including making and collecting loans and acquiring and disposing of
investments and productive long-lived assets.


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Certainty equivalent

An amount that would be accepted in lieu of a chance at a possible higher, but
uncertain, amount.


Clearing House Automated Payments System (CHAPS)

A computerized clearing system for sterling funds
that began operations in 1984. It includes 14 member banks, nearly 450 participating banks, and is one of the
clearing companies within the structure of the Association for Payment Clearing Services (APACS).


Clearing house / Clearinghouse

An adjunct to a futures exchange through which transactions executed its floor are settled by a
process of matching purchases and sales. A clearing organization is also charged with the proper conduct of
delivery procedures and the adequate financing of the entire operation.


Clearing House Interbank Payments System (CHIPS)

An international wire transfer system for high-value
payments operated by a group of major banks.


Closing purchase

A transaction in which the purchaser's intention is to reduce or eliminate a short position in
a stock, or in a given series of options.


Commission house

A firm which buys and sells future contracts for customer accounts. Related: futures
commission merchant, omnibus account.


Direct stock-purchase programs

The purchase by investors of securities directly from the issuer.


Equipment

The cost of equipment owned by the company.


Equipment trust certificates

Certificates issued by a trust that was formed to purchase an asset and lease it
to a lessee. When the last of the certificates has been repaid, title of ownership of the asset reverts to the
lessee.


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Field warehouse

Warehouse rented by a warehouse company on another firm's premises.


Field warehouse

A warehouse into which service parts and finished goods are
stocked, and from which deliveries are made directly to customers.



Growth phase

A phase of development in which a company experiences rapid earnings growth as it produces
new products and expands market share.


In-house processing float

Refers to the time it takes the receiver of a check to process the payment and
deposit it in a bank for collection.


Incontestable Clause

This clause in regular life insurance policy provides for voiding the contract of insurance for up to two years from the date of issue of the coverage if the life insured has failed to disclose important information or if there has been a misrepresentation of a material fact which would have prevented the coverage from being issued in the first place. After the end of two years from issue, a misrepresentation of smoking habits or age can still void or change the policy.


Inflation-escalator clause

A clause in a contract providing for increases or decreases in inflation based on
fluctuations in the cost of living, production costs, and so forth.


Inflation uncertainty

The fact that future inflation rates are not known. It is a possible contributing factor to
the makeup of the term structure of interest rates.


Maturity phase

A phase of company development in which earnings continue to grow at the rate of the
general economy. Related: Three-phase DDM.


Minimum purchases

For mutual funds, the amount required to open a new account (Minimum Initial
Purchase) or to deposit into an existing account (Minimum Additional Purchase). These minimums may be
lowered for buyers participating in an automatic purchase plan


Money purchase plan

A defined benefit contribution plan in which the participant contributes some part and
the firm contributes at the same or a different rate. Also called and individual account plan.


Multicurrency clause

Such a clause on a Euro loan permits the borrower to switch from one currency to
another currency on a rollover date.


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Negative pledge clause

A bond covenant that requires the borrower to grant lenders a lien equivalent to any
liens that may be granted in the future to any other currently unsecured lenders.



Open-market purchase operation

A systematic program of repurchasing shares of stock in market
transactions at current market prices, in competition with other prospective investors.


open purchase ordering

a process by which a single purchase
order that expires at a set or determinable future
date is prepared to authorize a supplier to provide a large
quantity of one or more specified items on an as-requested
basis by the customer


Opening purchase

A transaction in which the purchaser's intention is to create or increase a long position in
a given series of options.


Plant and Equipment

Buildings and machines that firms use to produce output.


Point-of-use delivery

A delivery of stock to a location in or near the shop floor
adjacent to its area of use.


Point-of-use storage

The storage of stock in a location in or near the shop floor
adjacent to its area of use.


Preferred Stock Stock that has a claim on assets and dividends of a corporation that are prior

to that of common stock. Preferred stock typically does not carry the right to vote.


PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT

Assets such as land, buildings, machinery, and equipment that the business will use for several
years to make the product or provide the service that it sells. They are shown at the cost a company paid to buy or build them minus the amount they’ve depreciated since they were bought or built. (Except for land, which is not depreciated.)


property, plant, and equipment

This label is generally used in financial
reports to describe the long-term assets of a business, which include
land, buildings, machinery, equipment, tools, vehicles, computers, furniture
and fixtures, and other tangible long-lived resources that are not
held for sale but are used in the operations of a business. The less formal
name for these assets is fixed assets, which see.


Property, plant, and equipment

This item is comprised of all types of fixed assets
recorded on the balance sheet, and is intended to reveal the sum total of all tangible,
long-term assets used to conduct business.


Public warehouse

Warehouse operated by an independent warehouse company on its own premises.


Purchase

To buy, to be long, to have an ownership position.


Purchase accounting

Method of accounting for a merger in which the acquirer is treated as having purchased
the assets and assumed liabilities of the acquiree, which are all written up or down to their respective fair
market values, the difference between the purchase price and the net assets acquired being attributed to goodwill.


Purchase agreement

As used in connection with project financing, an agreement to purchase a specific
amount of project output per period.


Purchase Agreement

This legal document records the final understanding of the parties with respect to the proposed transaction.


Purchase and sale

A method of securities distribution in which the securities firm purchases the securities
from the issuer for its own account at a stated price and then resells them, as contrasted with a best-efforts sale.


Purchase discounts

A contra account that reduces purchases by the amount of the discounts taken for early payment.


Purchase fund

Resembles a sinking fund except that money is used only to purchase bonds if they are selling
below their par value.


Purchase method

Accounting for an acquisition using market value for the consolidation of the two entities'
net assets on the balance sheet. Generally, depreciation/amortization will increase for this method compared
with pooling and will result in lower net income.


Purchase method

An accounting method used to combine the financial statements of
companies. This involves recording the acquired assets at fair market value, and the
excess of the purchase price over this value as goodwill, which will be amortized
over time.


Purchase price

Price actually paid for a security. Typically the purchase
price of a bond is not the same as the redemption value.


Purchase returns

A contra account that reduces purchases by the amount of items purchased that were subsequently returned.


Purchased In-Process Research and Development

Unfinished research and development that is acquired from another firm.


Purchases

Items purchased by the company for the purpose of resale.


Purchases journal

A journal used to record the transactions that result in a credit to accounts payable.


purchasing cost

the quoted price of inventory minus any
discounts allowed plus shipping charges


Purchasing power parity

The notion that the ratio between domestic and foreign price levels should equal
the equilibrium exchange rate between domestic and foreign currencies.


Purchasing Power Parity

Theory that says that over the long run exchange rate changes offset any difference between foreign and domestic inflation. This result assumes that the real exchange rate remains constant, something that is not true even in the long run.


purchasing power parity (PPP)

Theory that the cost of living in different countries is equal, and exchange rates adjust to offset inflation differentials across countries.


Purchasing-power risk

Related: inflation risk


Relative purchasing power parity (RPPP)

Idea that the rate of change in the price level of commodities in
one country relative to the price level in another determines the rate of change of the exchange rate between
the two countries' currencies.


Repurchase agreement

An agreement with a commitment by the seller (dealer) to buy a security back from
the purchaser (customer) at a specified price at a designated future date. Also called a repo, it represents a
collateralized short-term loan, where the collateral may be a Treasury security, money market instrument,
federal agency security, or mortgage-backed security. From the purchaser (customer) perspective, the deal is
reported as a reverse Repo.


Repurchase of stock

Device to pay cash to firm's shareholders that provides more preferable tax treatment
for shareholders than dividends. Treasury stock is the name given to previously issued stock that has been
repurchased by the firm. A repurchase is achieved through either a dutch auction, open market, or tender offer.


Roth IRA. An IRA account whose earnings are not taxable at all under certain

circumstances.


Share repurchase

Program by which a corporation buys back its own shares in the open market. It is usually
done when shares are undervalued. Since it reduces the number of shares outstanding and thus increases
earnings per share, it tends to elevate the market value of the remaining shares held by stockholders.


steady-state phase

the point at which the learning curve becomes flat and only minimal improvements in performance are achieved


Stochastic

Involving or containing a random variable or variables; involving
chance or probability.


Stochastic models

Liability-matching models that assume that the liability payments and the asset cash flows
are uncertain. Related: Deterministic models.


Stock repurchase

A firm's repurchase of outstanding shares of its common stock.


stock repurchase

Firm buys back stock from its shareholders.


Stockless purchasing

The purchase of material for direct delivery to the production
area, bypassing any warehouse storage.


Subordination clause

A provision in a bond indenture that restricts the issuer's future borrowing by
subordinating the new lender's claims on the firm to those of the existing bond holders.


Suicide Clause

Generally, a suicide clause in a regular life insurance policy provides for voiding the contract of insurance if the life insured commits suicide within two years of the date of issue of the coverage.


Targeted repurchase

The firm buys back its own stock from a potential bidder, usually at a substantial
premium, to forestall a takeover attempt.


Three-phase DDM

A version of the dividend discount model which applies a different expected dividend
rate depending on a company's life-cycle phase, growth phase, transition phase, or maturity phase.


Trade house

A firm which deals in actual commodities.


Transition phase

A phase of development in which the company's earnings begin to mature and decelerate to
the rate of growth of the economy as a whole. Related: three-phase DDM.


Useful life

The estimated life span of a fixed asset, during which it can be expected to
contribute to company operations.


User Cost of Capital

The implicit annual cost of investing in physical capital, determined by things such as the interest rate, the rate of depreciation of the asset, and tax regulations. What would be paid to rent this capital if a rental market existed for it.


Warehouse demand

The demand for a part by an outlying warehouse.


Warehouse receipt

Evidence that a firm owns goods stored in a warehouse.


Where-used report

A report listing every product whose bill of material calls for
the use of a specific component.


Wire house

A firm operating a private wire to its own branch offices or to other firms, commission houses or
brokerage houses.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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