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Definition of Yield

Yield Image 1


The percentage rate of return paid on a stock in the form of dividends, or the effective rate of interest
paid on a bond or note.


the quantity of output that results from a specified input


a. Measure of return on an investment, stated as a percentage of price.
yield can be computed by dividing return by purchase price, current market
value, or other measure of value.
b. Income from a bond expressed as an
annualized percentage rate.
c. The nominal annual interest rate that gives a
future value of the purchase price equal to the redemption value of the security.
Any coupon payments determine part of that yield.


The interest rate that makes the present value of a stream of future payments associated with an asset equal to the current price of that asset. Also called yield to maturity. See also current yield.

Related Terms:

Annual percentage yield (APY)

The effective, or true, annual rate of return. The APY is the rate actually
earned or paid in one year, taking into account the affect of compounding. The APY is calculated by taking
one plus the periodic rate and raising it to the number of periods in a year. For example, a 1% per month rate
has an APY of 12.68% (1.01^12).

Bond equivalent yield

Bond yield calculated on an annual percentage rate method. Differs from annual
effective yield.

Bond-equivalent yield

The annualized yield to maturity computed by doubling the semiannual yield.

Bond Equivalent Yield

Bond yield calculated on an annual percentage rate method

Yield Image 2

Capital gains yield

The price change portion of a stock's return.

Convenience yield

The extra advantage that firms derive from holding the commodity rather than the future.

Coupon equivalent yield

True interest cost expressed on the basis of a 365-day year.

Current yield

For bonds or notes, the coupon rate divided by the market price of the bond.

current yield

Annual coupon payments divided by bond price.

Current Yield

The percentage return on a financial asset based on the current price of the asset, without reference to any expected change in the price of the asset. This contrasts with yield-to-maturity, for which the calculation includes expected price changes. See also yield.

Dividend yield (Funds)

Indicated yield represents return on a share of a mutual fund held over the past 12
months. Assumes fund was purchased 1 year ago. Reflects effect of sales charges (at current rates), but not
redemption charges.

dividend yield ratio

Cash dividends paid by a business over the most
recent 12 months (called the trailing 12 months) divided by the current
market price per share of the stock. This ratio is reported in the daily
stock trading tables in the Wall Street Journal and other major newspapers.

Dividend yield (Stocks)

Indicated yield represents annual dividends divided by current stock price.

Earnings yield

The ratio of earnings per share after allowing for tax and interest payments on fixed interest
debt, to the current share price. The inverse of the price/earnings ratio. It's the Total Twelve Months earnings
divided by number of outstanding shares, divided by the recent price, multiplied by 100. The end result is
shown in percentage.

Effective annual yield

Annualized interest rate on a security computed using compound interest techniques.

Effective Annual Yield

Annualized rate of return on a security computed using compound
interest techniques

Equivalent bond yield

Annual yield on a short-term, non-interest bearing security calculated so as to be
comparable to yields quoted on coupon securities.

Equivalent taxable yield

The yield that must be offered on a taxable bond issue to give the same after-tax
yield as a tax-exempt issue.

Flattening of the yield curve

A change in the yield curve where the spread between the yield on a long-term
and short-term Treasury has decreased. Compare steepening of the yield curve and butterfly shift.

High-yield bond

See:junk bond.

Indicated yield

The yield, based on the most recent quarterly rate times four. To determine the yield, divide
the annual dividend by the price of the stock. The resulting number is represented as a percentage. See:
dividend yield.

labor yield variance

(standard mix X actual hours X standard rate) - (standard mix X standard hours X standard rate);
it shows the monetary impact of using more or fewer total hours than the standard allowed

Liquid yield option note (LYON)

Zero-coupon, callable, putable, convertible bond invented by Merrill

Liquid yield option note (LYON)

Zero-coupon, callable, putable, convertible bond invented by Merrill Lynch & Co.

material yield variance

(standard mix X actual quantity X standard price) - (standard mix X standard quantity X standard price);
it computes the difference between the
actual total quantity of input and the standard total quantity
allowed based on output and uses standard mix and
standard prices to determine variance

Non-parallel shift in the yield curve

A shift in the yield curve in which yields do not change by the same
number of basis points for every maturity. Related: Parallel shift in the yield curve.

Par yield curve

The yield curve of bonds selling at par, or face, value.

Parallel shift in the yield curve

A shift in the yield curve in which the change in the yield on all maturities is
the same number of basis points. In other words, if the 3 month T-bill increases 100 basis points (one
percent), then the 6 month, 1 year, 5 year, 10 year, 20 year, and 30 year rates increase by 100 basis points as
Related: Non-parallel shift in the yield curve.

process quality yield

the proportion of good units that resulted from the activities expended

Production yield variance

The difference between the actual and budgeted proportions
of product resulting from a production process, multiplied by the standard unit cost.

Pure yield pickup swap

Moving to higher yield bonds.

Realized compound yield

yield assuming that coupon payments are invested at the going market interest
rate at the time of their receipt and rolled over until the bond matures.

Relative yield spread

The ratio of the yield spread to the yield level.

Reoffering yield

In a purchase and sale, the yield to maturity at which the underwriter offers to sell the bonds
to investors.

Required yield

Generally referring to bonds, the yield required by the marketplace to match available returns
for financial instruments with comparable risk.

Riding the yield curve

Buying long-term bonds in anticipation of capital gains as yields fall with the
declining maturity of the bonds.

Spot curve, spot yield curve

See Zero curve.

Steepening of the yield curve

A change in the yield curve where the spread between the yield on a long-term
and short-term Treasury has increased. Compare flattening of the yield curve and butterfly shift.

Weighted average portfolio yield

The weighted average of the yield of all the bonds in a portfolio.

Yield curve

The graphical depiction of the relationship between the yield on bonds of the same credit quality
but different maturities. Related: Term structure of interest rates. Harvey (1991) finds that the inversions of
the yield curve (short-term rates greater than long term rates) have preceded the last five U.S. recessions. The
yield curve can accurately forecast the turning points of the business cycle.

Yield Curve

A graphical representation of the level of interest rates for
securities of differing maturities at a specific point of time

Yield curve

Graph of yields (vertical axis) of a particular type of security
versus the time to maturity (horizontal axis). This curve usually slopes
upward, indicating that investors usually expect to receive a premium for
securities that have a longer time to maturity. The benchmark yield curve is
for U.S. Treasury securities with maturities ranging from three months to 30
years. See Term structure.

yield curve

Graph of the relationship between time to maturity and yield to maturity.

Yield curve

A graph showing how the yield on bonds varies with time to maturity.

Yield curve option-pricing models

Models that can incorporate different volatility assumptions along the
yield curve, such as the Black-Derman-Toy model. Also called arbitrage-free option-pricing models.

Yield curve strategies

Positioning a portfolio to capitalize on expected changes in the shape of the Treasury yield curve.

Yield ratio

The quotient of two bond yields.

yield ratio

the expected or actual relationship between input and output

Yield spread strategies

Strategies that involve positioning a portfolio to capitalize on expected changes in
yield spreads between sectors of the bond market.

Yield to call

The percentage rate of a bond or note, if you were to buy and hold the security until the call date.
This yield is valid only if the security is called prior to maturity. Generally bonds are callable over several
years and normally are called at a slight premium. The calculation of yield to call is based on the coupon rate,
length of time to the call and the market price.

Yield to maturity

The percentage rate of return paid on a bond, note or other fixed income security if you
buy and hold it to its maturity date. The calculation for YTM is based on the coupon rate, length of time to
maturity and market price. It assumes that coupon interest paid over the life of the bond will be reinvested at
the same rate.

Yield to Maturity

The measure of the average rate of return that will be earned on a
debt security held until it matures

Yield to maturity

A measure of the average rate of return that will be earned
on a bond if held to maturity.

yield to maturity

Interest rate for which the present value of the bond’s payments equals the price.

Yield to worst

The bond yield computed by using the lower of either the yield to maturity or the yield to call
on every possible call date.

Zero curve, zero-coupon yield curve

A yield curve for zero-coupon bonds;
zero rates versus maturity dates. Since the maturity and duration (Macaulay
duration) are identical for zeros, the zero curve is a pure depiction of supply/
demand conditions for loanable funds across a continuum of durations and
maturities. Also known as spot curve or spot yield curve.

Arbitrage-free option-pricing models

yield curve option-pricing models.


A resource, recorded through a transaction, that is expected to yield a benefit to a

Attribute bias

The tendency of stocks preferred by the dividend discount model to share certain equity
attributes such as low price-earnings ratios, high dividend yield, high book-value ratio or membership in a
particular industry sector.

Average inventory

The beginning inventory for a period, plus the amount at the end of
the period, divided by two. It is most commonly used in situations in which just
using the period-end inventory yields highly variable results, due to constant and
large changes in the inventory level.


1) When bond yields and prices fall, the market is said to back-up.
2) When an investor swaps out of one security into another of shorter current maturity he is said to back up.

Bank discount basis

A convention used for quoting bids and offers for treasury bills in terms of annualized
yield , based on a 360-day year.

Basis point

In the bond market, the smallest measure used for quoting yields is a basis point. Each percentage
point of yield in bonds equals 100 basis points. Basis points also are used for interest rates. An interest rate of
5% is 50 basis points greater than an interest rate of 4.5%.

Basis Point

One one-hundredth of a percentage point, used to express variations in yields. For example, the difference between 5.36 percent and 5.38 percent is 2 basis points.

Basis price

Price expressed in terms of yield to maturity or annual rate of return.

Benchmark interest rate

Also called the base interest rate, it is the minimum interest rate investors will
demand for investing in a non-Treasury security. It is also tied to the yield to maturity offered on a
comparable-maturity Treasury security that was most recently issued ("on-the-run").

Bond-equivalent basis

The method used for computing the bond-equivalent yield.

Book Returns

Book yield is the investment income earned in a year on a portfolio of assets purchased over a number of years and at different interest rates, divided by the book value of those assets.


A process of creating a theoretical spot rate curve , using one yield projection as the basis for
the yield of the next maturity.

Bootstrapping, bootstrap method

An arithmetic method for backing an
implied zero curve out of the par yield curve.

Bullet strategy

A strategy in which a portfolio is constructed so that the maturities of its securities are highly
concentrated at one point on the yield curve.

Butterfly shift

A non-parallel shift in the yield curve involving the height of the curve.

Contract month

The month in which futures contracts may be satisfied by making or accepting a delivery.
Also called value managers, those who assemble portfolios with relatively lower betas, lower price-book and
P/E ratios and higher dividend yields, seeing value where others do not.


Bowed, as in the shape of a curve. Usually referring to the price/required yield relationship for
option-free bonds.


A measure of the rate of change in duration; measured in time.
The greater the rate of change, the more the duration changes as yield changes.

Corporate taxable equivalent

Rate of return required on a par bond to produce the same after-tax yield to
maturity that the premium or discount bond quoted would.

Current coupon

A bond selling at or close to par, that is, a bond with a coupon close to the yields currently
offered on new bonds of a similar maturity and credit risk.

Default premium

A differential in promised yield that compensates the investor for the risk inherent in
purchasing a corporate bond that entails some risk of default.

default premium

Difference in promised yields between a default-free bond and a riskier bond.


A dividend is a portion of a company's profit paid to common and preferred shareholders. A stock
selling for $20 a share with an annual dividend of $1 a share yields the investor 5%.


The expected life of a fixed-income security considering its coupon
yield, interest payments, maturity, and call features. As market interest rates
rise, the duration of a financial instrument decreases. See Macaulay duration.

Effective convexity

The convexity of a bond calculated with cash flows that change with yields.


a measure of the degree to which tasks were performed
to produce the best yield at the lowest cost from
the resources available; the degree to which a satisfactory
relationship of outputs to inputs occurs

Figuring the tail

Calculating the yield at which a future money market (one available some period hence) is
purchased when that future security is created by buying an existing instrument and financing the initial
portion of its life with a term repo.

Floating-rate contract

A guaranteed investment contract where the credit rating is tied to some variable
("floating") interest rate benchmark, such as a specific-maturity Treasury yield.

Forward rate

A projection of future interest rates calculated from either the spot rates or the yield curve.

Forward rate

The future interest rate of a bond inferred from the term
structure, especially from the yield curve of zero-coupon bonds, calculated from
the growth factor of an investment in a zero held until maturity.

Give up

The loss in yield that occurs when a block of bonds is swapped for another block of lower-coupon
bonds. Can also be referred to as "after-tax give up" when the implications of the profit or loss on taxes are

Income stock

Common stock with a high dividend yield and few profitable investment opportunities.

Internal rate of return

a. The average annual yield earned by an investment during the period held.
b. The effective rate of interest on a loan.
c. The discount rate in discounted cash flow analysis.
d. The rate that adjusts the value of future cash receipts earned by an investment so that interest earned equals the original cost.
See yield to maturity.

Investment grade bonds

A bond that is assigned a rating in the top four categories by commercial credit
rating companies. For example, S&P classifies investment grade bonds as BBB or higher, and Moodys'
classifies investment grade bonds as Ba or higher. Related: High-yield bond.

Junk bond

A bond with a speculative credit rating of BB (S&P) or Ba (Moody's) or lower is a junk or high
yield bond. Such bonds offer investors higher yields than bonds of financially sound companies. Two
agencies, Standard & Poors and Moody's investor Services, provide the rating systems for companies' credit.

Leveraged buyout (LBO)

A transaction used for taking a public corporation private financed through the use
of debt funds: bank loans and bonds. Because of the large amount of debt relative to equity in the new
corporation, the bonds are typically rated below investment grade, properly referred to as high-yield bonds or
junk bonds. Investors can participate in an LBO through either the purchase of the debt (i.e., purchase of the
bonds or participation in the bank loan) or the purchase of equity through an LBO fund that specializes in
such investments.

Long rate

The yield on a zero-coupon Treasury bond.

Macaulay duration

A widely used measure of price sensitivity to yield
changes developed by Frederick Macaulay in 1938. It is measured in years and
is a weighted average-time-to-maturity of an instrument. The Macaulay
duration of an income stream, such as a coupon bond, measures how long, on
average, the owner waits before receiving a payment. It is the weighted
average of the times payments are made, with the weights at time T equal to
the present value of the money received at time T.

Market segmentation theory or preferred habitat theory

A biased expectations theory that asserts that the
shape of the yield curve is determined by the supply of and demand for securities within each maturity sector.







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