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Subrogation

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Definition of Subrogation

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Subrogation

Conditional payments may be made by an insurance company to a disability insurance claimant who has a loss of income claim against a third party who caused or contributed to their disability, however, the insurance company has a right to seek reimbursement of any payments they made to the claimant either from the third party or from any judgement or settlement received by the claimant from the third party.



Related Terms:

Appraisal rights

A right of shareholders in a merger to demand the payment of a fair price for their shares, as
determined independently.


Balance of payments

A statistical compilation formulated by a sovereign nation of all economic transactions
between residents of that nation and residents of all other nations during a stipulated period of time, usually a
calendar year.


Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

An international bank headquartered in Basel, Switzerland, which
serves as a forum for monetary cooperation among several European central banks, the Bank of Japan, and the
U.S. Federal Reserve System. Founded in 1930 to handle the German payment of World War I reparations, it
now monitors and collects data on international banking activity and promulgates rules concerning
international bank regulation.


Bargain-purchase-price option

Gives the lessee the option to purchase the asset at a price below fair market
value when the lease expires.


Base probability of loss

The probability of not achieving a portfolio expected return.



Blue-chip company

Large and creditworthy company.


Capital loss

The difference between the net cost of a security and the net sale price, if that security is sold at a loss.


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Cash settlement contracts

Futures contracts, such as stock index futures, that settle for cash, not involving
the delivery of the underlying.


Claim dilution

A reduction in the likelihood one or more of the firm's claimants will be fully repaid,
including time value of money considerations.


Claimant

A party to an explicit or implicit contract.


Clearing House Automated Payments System (CHAPS)

A computerized clearing system for sterling funds
that began operations in 1984. It includes 14 member banks, nearly 450 participating banks, and is one of the
clearing companies within the structure of the Association for Payment Clearing Services (APACS).


Clearing House Interbank Payments System (CHIPS)

An international wire transfer system for high-value
payments operated by a group of major banks.


Closing purchase

A transaction in which the purchaser's intention is to reduce or eliminate a short position in
a stock, or in a given series of options.


Coinsurance effect

Refers to the fact that the merger of two firms decreases the probability of default on
either firm's debt.


Company-specific risk

Related: Unsystematic risk


Conditional sales contracts

Similar to equipment trust certificates except that the lender is either the
equipment manufacturer or a bank or finance company to whom the manufacturer has sold the Conditional
sales contract.


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Contingent claim

A claim that can be made only if one or more specified outcomes occur.


Cost company arrangement

Arrangement whereby the shareholders of a project receive output free of
charge but agree to pay all operating and financing charges of the project.



Counterparty Party

on the other side of a trade or transaction.


Counterparty risk

The risk that the other party to an agreement will default. In an options contract, the risk
to the option buyer that the option writer will not buy or sell the underlying as agreed.
Country economic risk Developments in a national economy that can affect the outcome of an international
financial transaction.


Coupon payments

A bond's interest payments.


Cum rights

With rights.


Depository Trust Company (DTC)

DTC is a user-owned securities depository which accepts deposits of
eligible securities for custody, executes book-entry deliveries and records book-entry pledges of securities in
its custody, and provides for withdrawals of securities from its custody.


Direct stock-purchase programs

The purchase by investors of securities directly from the issuer.


Disclaimer of opinion

An auditor's statement disclaiming any opinion regarding the company's financial
condition.


Dividend rights

A shareholders' rights to receive per-share dividends identical to those other shareholders receive.


Economic income

Cash flow plus change in present value.


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Either/or facility

An agreement permitting a bank customer to borrow either domestic dollars from the
bank's head office or Eurodollars from one of its foreign branches.



Either-way market

In the interbank Eurodollar deposit market, an either-way market is one in which the bid
and offered rates are identical.


Equity claim

Also called a residual claim, a claim to a share of earnings after debt obligation have been
satisfied.


Ex-rights

In connection with a rights offering, shares of stock that are trading without the rights attached.


Ex-rights date

The date on which a share of common stock begins trading ex-rights.


Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

A federal institution that insures bank deposits.


Fixed-income equivalent

Also called a busted convertible, a convertible security that is trading like a straight
security because the optioned common stock is trading low.


Fixed-income instruments

Assets that pay a fixed-dollar amount, such as bonds and preferred stock.


Fixed-income market

The market for trading bonds and preferred stock.


Good delivery and settlement procedures

Refers to PSA Uniform Practices such as cutoff times on delivery
of securities and notification, allocation, and proper endorsement.


Growth phase

A phase of development in which a company experiences rapid earnings growth as it produces
new products and expands market share.


Guaranteed insurance contract

A contract promising a stated nominal interest rate over some specific time
period, usually several years.


Holding company

A corporation that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and
operations by influencing or electing its board of directors.


Homemade dividend

Sale of some shares of stock to get cash that would be similar to receiving a cash dividend.


Homemade leverage

Idea that as long as individuals borrow (or lend) on the same terms as the firm, they can
duplicate the affects of corporate leverage on their own. Thus, if levered firms are priced too high, rational
investors will simply borrow on personal accounts to buy shares in unlevered firms.


Immediate settlement

Delivery and settlement of securities within five business days.


Income beneficiary

One who receives income from a trust.


Income bond

A bond on which the payment of interest is contingent on sufficient earnings. These bonds are
commonly used during the reorganization of a failed or failing business.


Income fund

A mutual fund providing for liberal current income from investments.


Income statement (statement of operations)

A statement showing the revenues, expenses, and income (the
difference between revenues and expenses) of a corporation over some period of time.


Income stock

Common stock with a high dividend yield and few profitable investment opportunities.


Insurance principle

The law of averages. The average outcome for many independent trials of an experiment
will approach the expected value of the experiment.


Intercompany loan

Loan made by one unit of a corporation to another unit of the same corporation.


Intercompany transaction

Transaction carried out between two units of the same corporation.


Interest payments

Contractual debt payments based on the coupon rate of interest and the principal amount.


Investment income

The revenue from a portfolio of invested assets.
Investment management Also called portfolio management and money management, the process of
managing money.


Lag response of prepayments

There is typically a lag of about three months between the time the weighted
average coupon of an MBS pool has crossed the threshold for refinancing and an acceleration in prepayment
speed is observed.


Liquidation rights

The rights of a firm's securityholders in the event the firm liquidates.


Marketed claims

claims that can be bought and sold in financial markets, such as those of stockholders and
bondholders.


Maturity phase

A phase of company development in which earnings continue to grow at the rate of the
general economy. Related: Three-phase DDM.


Minimum purchases

For mutual funds, the amount required to open a new account (Minimum Initial
Purchase) or to deposit into an existing account (Minimum Additional Purchase). These minimums may be
lowered for buyers participating in an automatic purchase plan


Money purchase plan

A defined benefit contribution plan in which the participant contributes some part and
the firm contributes at the same or a different rate. Also called and individual account plan.


Monthly income preferred security (MIP)

Preferred stock issued by a subsidiary located in a tax haven.
The subsidiary relends the money to the parent.


Net income

The company's total earnings, reflecting revenues adjusted for costs of doing business,
depreciation, interest, taxes and other expenses.


Net operating losses

losses that a firm can take advantage of to reduce taxes.


Nonmarketed claims

claims that cannot be easily bought and sold in the financial markets, such as those of
the government and litigants in lawsuits.


Open-market purchase operation

A systematic program of repurchasing shares of stock in market
transactions at current market prices, in competition with other prospective investors.


Opening purchase

A transaction in which the purchaser's intention is to create or increase a long position in
a given series of options.


Outright rate

Actual forward rate expressed in dollars per currency unit, or vice versa.
Outsourcing
he practice of purchasing a significant percentage of intermediate components from outside suppliers.


Paper gain (loss)

Unrealized capital gain (loss) on securities held in portfolio, based on a comparison of
current market price to original cost.


Payments netting

Reducing fund transfers between affiliates to only a netted amount. Netting can be done on
a bilateral basis (between pairs of affiliates), or on a multi-lateral basis (taking all affiliates together).


Payments pattern

escribes the lagged collection pattern of receivables, for instance the probability that a
72-day-old account will still be unpaid when it is 73-days-old.


Portfolio insurance

A strategy using a leveraged portfolio in the underlying stock to create a synthetic put
option. The strategy's goal is to ensure that the value of the portfolio does not fall below a certain level.


Preemptive right

Common stockholder's right to anything of value distributed by the company.


Prepayments

payments made in excess of scheduled mortgage principal repayments.


Property rights

rights of individuals and companies to own and utilize property as they see fit and to receive
the stream of income that their property generates.


Purchase

To buy, to be long, to have an ownership position.


Purchase accounting

Method of accounting for a merger in which the acquirer is treated as having purchased
the assets and assumed liabilities of the acquiree, which are all written up or down to their respective fair
market values, the difference between the purchase price and the net assets acquired being attributed to goodwill.


Purchase agreement

As used in connection with project financing, an agreement to purchase a specific
amount of project output per period.


Purchase and sale

A method of securities distribution in which the securities firm purchases the securities
from the issuer for its own account at a stated price and then resells them, as contrasted with a best-efforts sale.


Purchase fund

Resembles a sinking fund except that money is used only to purchase bonds if they are selling
below their par value.


Purchase method

Accounting for an acquisition using market value for the consolidation of the two entities'
net assets on the balance sheet. Generally, depreciation/amortization will increase for this method compared
with pooling and will result in lower net income.


Purchasing power parity

The notion that the ratio between domestic and foreign price levels should equal
the equilibrium exchange rate between domestic and foreign currencies.


Purchasing-power risk

Related: inflation risk


Regular way settlement

In the money and bond markets, the regular basis on which some security trades are
settled is that the delivery of the securities purchased is made against payment in Fed funds on the day
following the transaction.


Relative purchasing power parity (RPPP)

Idea that the rate of change in the price level of commodities in
one country relative to the price level in another determines the rate of change of the exchange rate between
the two countries' currencies.


Repurchase agreement

An agreement with a commitment by the seller (dealer) to buy a security back from
the purchaser (customer) at a specified price at a designated future date. Also called a repo, it represents a
collateralized short-term loan, where the collateral may be a Treasury security, money market instrument,
federal agency security, or mortgage-backed security. From the purchaser (customer) perspective, the deal is
reported as a reverse Repo.


Repurchase of stock

Device to pay cash to firm's shareholders that provides more preferable tax treatment
for shareholders than dividends. Treasury stock is the name given to previously issued stock that has been
repurchased by the firm. A repurchase is achieved through either a dutch auction, open market, or tender offer.


Residual claim

Related: equity claim


Residual losses

Lost wealth of the shareholders due to divergent behavior of the managers.


Right

A short-lived (typically less than 90 days) call option for purchasing additional stock in a firm, issued
by the firm to all its shareholders on a pro rata basis.


Rights offering

Issuance of "rights" to current shareholders allowing them to purchase additional shares,
usually at a discount to market price. Shareholders who do not exercise these rights are usually diluted by the
offering. rights are often transferable, allowing the holder to sell them on the open market to others who may
wish to exercise them. rights offerings are particularly common to closed end funds, which cannot otherwise
issue additional common stock.


Rights-on

Shares trading with rights attached to them.


Settlement

When payment is made for a trade.


Settlement date

The date on which payment is made to settle a trade. For stocks traded on US exchanges,
settlement is currently 3 business days after the trade. For mutual funds, settlement usually occurs in the
U.S.the day following the trade. In some regional markets, foreign shares may require months to settle.


Settlement price

A figure determined by the closing range which is used to calculate gains and losses in
futures market accounts. settlement prices are used to determine gains, losses, margin calls, and invoice
prices for deliveries. Related: closing range.


Settlement rate

The rate suggested in Financial Accounting Standard Board (FASB) 87 for discounting the
obligations of a pension plan. The rate at which the pension benefits could be effectively settled off the
pension plan wished to terminate its pension obligation.


Share repurchase

Program by which a corporation buys back its own shares in the open market. It is usually
done when shares are undervalued. Since it reduces the number of shares outstanding and thus increases
earnings per share, it tends to elevate the market value of the remaining shares held by stockholders.


Skip-day settlement

The trade is settled one business day beyond what is normal.


Special drawing rights (SDR)

A form of international reserve assets, created by the IMF in 1967, whose
value is based on a portfolio of widely used currencies.


Spread income

Also called margin income, the difference between income and cost. For a depository
institution, the difference between the assets it invests in (loans and securities) and the cost of its funds
(deposits and other sources).


Stochastic models

Liability-matching models that assume that the liability payments and the asset cash flows
are uncertain. Related: Deterministic models.


Stock repurchase

A firm's repurchase of outstanding shares of its common stock.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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