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Definition of Specialist

Specialist Image 1

Specialist

On an exchange, the member firm that is designated as the market maker (or dealer for a listed
common stock). Only one specialist can be designated for a given stock, but dealers may be specialists for
several stocks. In contrast, there can be multiple market makers in the OTC market.



Related Terms:

Collection Department

An internal department within a company staffed by specialists in collecting past due accounts or accounts receivable.


Limit order book

A record of unexecuted limit orders that is maintained by the specialist. These orders are
treated equally with other orders in terms of priority of execution.


Trading posts

The posts on the floor of a stock exchange where the specialists stand and securities are traded.


administrative department

an organizational unit that performs management activities benefiting the entire organization;
includes top management personnel and organization
headquarters


Average Collection Period

Average number of days necessary to receive cash for the sale of
a company's products. It is calculated by dividing the value of the
accounts receivable by the average daily sales for the period.



Average collection period, or days' receivables

The ratio of accounts receivables to sales, or the total
amount of credit extended per dollar of daily sales (average AR/sales * 365).


Bank collection float

The time that elapses between when a check is deposited into a bank account and when the funds are available to the depositor, during which period the bank is collecting payment from the payer's bank.


Specialist Image 1

Book

A banker or trader's positions.


Book

cash A firm's cash balance as reported in its financial statements. Also called ledger cash.


Book-entry securities

The Treasury and federal agencies are moving to a book-entry system in which securities are not represented by engraved pieces of paper but are maintained in computerized records at the
Fed in the names of member banks, which in turn keep records of the securities they own as well as those they
are holding for customers. In the case of other securities where a book-entry has developed, engraved
securities do exist somewhere in quite a few cases. These securities do not move from holder to holder but are
usually kept in a central clearinghouse or by another agent.


Book Income

Pretax income reported on the income statement.


Book inventory

The amount of money invested in inventory, as per a company’s
accounting records. It is comprised of the beginning inventory balance, plus the
cost of any receipts, less the cost of sold or scrapped inventory. It may be significantly
different from the actual on-hand inventory, if the two are not periodically
reconciled.


Book profit

The cumulative book income plus any gain or loss on disposition of the assets on termination of the SAT.


book rate of return

Accounting income divided by book value.
Also called accounting rate of return.


Book Returns

book yield is the investment income earned in a year on a portfolio of assets purchased over a number of years and at different interest rates, divided by the book value of those assets.


Book runner

The managing underwriter for a new issue. The book runner maintains the book of securities sold.


Specialist Image 2

Book value

A company's book value is its total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities, such as debt. A
company's book value might be more or less than its market value.


BOOK VALUE

An asset’s cost basis minus accumulated depreciation.



Book Value

The value of an asset as carried on the balance sheet of a
company. In reference to the value of a company, it is the net worth
(equity) of the company.


Book value

An asset’s original cost, less any depreciation that has been subsequently incurred.


book value

Net worth of the firm’s assets or liabilities according
to the balance sheet.


book value and book value per share

Generally speaking, these terms
refer to the balance sheet value of an asset (or less often of a liability) or
the balance sheet value of owners’ equity per share. Either term emphasizes
that the amount recorded in the accounts or on the books of a business
is the value being used. The total of the amounts reported for
owners’ equity in its balance sheet is divided by the number of stock
shares of a corporation to determine the book value per share of its capital
stock.


BOOK VALUE OF COMMON STOCK

The theoretical amount per share that each stockholder would receive if a company’s assets were sold on the balance sheet’s date. book value equals:
(Stockholders’ equity) / (Common stock shares outstanding)


Book value per share

The ratio of stockholder equity to the average number of common shares. book value
per share should not be thought of as an indicator of economic worth, since it reflects accounting valuation
(and not necessarily market valuation).


Book Value per Share

The book value of a company divided by the number of shares
outstanding


Buy limit order

A conditional trading order that indicates a security may be purchased only at the designated
price or lower.
Related: Sell limit order.


Collection float

The negative float that is created between the time when you deposit a check in your account
and the time when funds are made available.


Specialist Image 3

Collection fractions

The percentage of a given month's sales collected during the month of sale and each
month following the month of sale.



Collection policy

Procedures followed by a firm in attempting to collect accounts receivables.


collection policy

Procedures to collect and monitor receivables.


Cost of limited partner capital

The discount rate that equates the after-tax inflows with outflows for capital
raised from limited partners.


Cross-border risk

Refers to the volatility of returns on international investments caused by events associated
with a particular country as opposed to events associated solely with a particular economic or financial agent.


Day order

An order to buy or sell stock that automatically expires if it can't be executed on the day it is entered.


Debt limitation

A bond covenant that restricts in some way the firm's ability to incur additional indebtedness.


Departmental stocks

The informal and frequently unauthorized retention of excess inventory on the shop floor, which is used as buffer safety stock.


Discrete order picking

A picking method requiring the sequential completion of
each order before one begins picking the next order.


Dividend limitation

A bond covenant that restricts in some way the firm's ability to pay cash dividends.


economic order quantity

order size that minimizes total inventory costs.


Economic order quantity (EOQ)

The order quantity that minimizes total inventory costs.


economic order quantity (EOQ)

an estimate of the number
of units per order that will be the least costly and provide
the optimal balance between the costs of ordering
and the costs of carrying inventory


engineering change order (ECO)

a business mandate that changes the way in which a product is manufactured or a
service is performed by modifying the design, parts,
process, or even quality of the product or service


Fill or kill order

A trading order that is canceled unless executed within a designated time period.
Related: open order.


job order cost sheet

a source document that provides virtually
all the financial information about a particular job;
the set of all job order cost sheets for uncompleted jobs
composes the Work in Process Inventory subsidiary ledger


job order costing system

a system of product costing used
by an entity that provides limited quantities of products or
services unique to a customer’s needs; focus of recordkeeping
is on individual jobs


Limit order

An order to buy a stock at or below a specified price or to sell a stock at or above a specified
price. For instance, you could tell a broker "Buy me 100 shares of XYZ Corp at $8 or less" or to "sell 100
shares of XYZ at $10 or better." The customer specifies a price and the order can be executed only if the
market reaches or betters that price. A conditional trading order designed to avoid the danger of adverse
unexpected price changes.


Limit price

Maximum price fluctuation
limitation on asset dispositions A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to sell major
assets.


Limit price

Maximum price fluctuation


Limitation on asset dispositions

A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to sell major assets.


Limitation on liens

A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to grant liens on its assets.


Limitation on merger, consolidation, or sale

A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to
merge or consolidate with another firm.


Limitation on sale-and-leaseback

A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to enter into
sale and lease-back transactions.


Limitation on subsidiary borrowing

A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to borrow at
the subsidiary level.


Limited liability

limitation of possible loss to what has already been invested.


limited liability

The owners of the corporation are not personally responsible for its obligations.


limited liability company

an organizational form that is a hybrid of the corporate and partnership organizational
forms and used to limit the personal liability of the owners;
it is typically used by small professional (such as accounting) firms


Limited-liability instrument

A security, such as a call option, in which the owner can only lose his initial
investment.


Limited-liability instrument

A security, such as a call option, in which the owner can only lose his initial investment.


limited liability partnership

an organizational form that is a hybrid of the corporate and partnership organizational
forms and used to limit the personal liability of the owners;
it is typically used by large professional (such as accounting) firms


Limited partner

A partner who has limited legal liability for the obligations of the partnership.


Limited partnership

A partnership that includes one or more partners who have limited liability.


Limited partnership

A partnership that includes one or more partners who have limited liability.


Limited-tax general obligation bond

A general obligation bond that is limited as to revenue sources.


Limiting factor

The production resource that, as a result of scarce resources, limits the production of goods
or services, i.e. a bottleneck.


Make-to-order

A production scheduling system under which products are only
manufactured once a customer order has been received.


Market-book ratio

Market price of a share divided by book value per share.


Market order

This is an order to immediately buy or sell a security at the current trading price.


Market to Book Ratio

Measure of the book value of a company on a per share basis. It is
calculated by dividing the book value of the company by the
number of common shares outstanding.


Master limited partnership (MLP)

A publicly traded limited partnership.


Matched book

A bank runs a matched book when the distribution of maturities of its assets and liabilities are equal.


money order

A guaranteed form of payment in amounts up to and including $5,000. You might request a money order in order to pay for tuition fees at a university or a college, or for a magazine subscription.


Negotiable order of withdrawal (NOW)

Demand deposits that pay interest.


Net book value

The current book value of an asset or liability; that is, its original book value net of any
accounting adjustments such as depreciation.


Non-Medical Limit

This is the maximum value of a policy that an insurance company will issue without the applicant taking a medical examination, although medical questions are invariably asked during the application process. When a non-medical issue is made through group insurance, in most cases, medical data is not requested at all.


Open book

See: unmatched book.


open-book management

a philosophy about increasing a firm’s performance by involving all workers and by ensuring
that all workers have access to operational and financial
information necessary to achieve performance improvements


Open (good-til-cancelled) order

An individual investor can place an order to buy or sell a security. That
open order stays active until it is completed or the investor cancels it.


open purchase ordering

a process by which a single purchase
order that expires at a set or determinable future
date is prepared to authorize a supplier to provide a large
quantity of one or more specified items on an as-requested
basis by the customer


Order penetration point

The point in the production process when a product is
reserved for a specific customer.


Order picking

The process of moving items from stock for shipment to customers.


order point

the level of inventory that triggers the placement
of an order for additional units; it is determined based
on usage, lead time, and safety stock


ordering cost

the variable cost associated with preparing,
receiving, and paying for an order


pecking order theory

Firms prefer to issue debt rather than equity if internal finance is insufficient.


Pecking-order view (of capital structure)

The argument that external financing transaction costs, especially
those associated with the problem of adverse selection, create a dynamic environment in which firms have a
preference, or pecking-order of preferred sources of financing, when all else is equal. Internally generated
funds are the most preferred, new debt is next, debt-equity hybrids are next, and new equity is the least
preferred source.


Price/book ratio

Compares a stock's market value to the value of total assets less total liabilities (book
value). Determined by dividing current stock price by common stockholder equity per share (book value),
adjusted for stock splits. Also called Market-to-book.


Risk of Collection

Chance that a borrower or trade debtor will not repay an obligation as promised.


Sell limit order

Conditional trading order that indicates that a, security may be sold at the designated price or
higher. Related: buy limit order.


service department

an organizational unit that provides one or more specific functional tasks for other internal units


Short book

See: unmatched book.


special order decision

a situation in which management must determine a sales price to charge for manufacturing or service jobs outside the company’s normal production/service market


Stockholder's books

Set of books kept by firm management for its annual report that follows Financial
Accounting Standards Board rules. The tax books follow IRS tax rules.


Stop-limit order

A stop order that designates a price limit. In contrast to the stop order, which becomes a
market order once the stop is reached, the stop-limit order becomes a limit order once the stop is reached.


Stop-loss order

An order to sell a stock when the price falls to a specified level.


Stop order (or stop)

An order to buy or sell at the market when a definite price is reached, either above (on a
buy) or below (on a sell) the price that prevailed when the order was given.


Tax books

Set of books kept by a firm's management for the IRS that follows IRS rules. The stockholder's
books follow Financial Accounting Standards Board rules.


Unlimited liability

Full liability for the debt and other obligations of a legal entity. The general partners of a
partnership have unlimited liability.


Unmatched book

If the average maturity of a bank's liabilities is less than that of its assets, it is said to be
running an unmatched book. The term is commonly used with the Euromarket. Term also refers to the
condition when a firm enters into OTC derivatives contracts and chooses to hedge that risk by not making
trades in the opposite direction to another financial intermediary. In this case, the firm with an unmatched
book hedges its net market risk with futures and options, usually.
Related expressions: open book and short book.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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