 Financial Terms Rate of interest

# Definition of Rate of interest ## Rate of interest

The rate, as a proportion of the principal, at which interest is computed.

# Related Terms:

## Equilibrium rate of interest

The interest rate that clears the market. Also called the market-clearing interest
rate.

## Money Rate of Interest

See interest rate, nominal.

## Real Rate of Interest

See interest rate, real.

## Amortizing interest rate swap

Swap in which the principal or national amount rises (falls) as interest rates
rise (decline).

## Base interest rate

Related: Benchmark interest rate.

## Benchmark interest rate

Also called the base interest rate, it is the minimum interest rate investors will
demand for investing in a non-Treasury security. It is also tied to the yield to maturity offered on a
comparable-maturity Treasury security that was most recently issued ("on-the-run").

## Effective annual interest rate

An annual measure of the time value of money that fully reflects the effects of
compounding. ## Forward interest rate

interest rate fixed today on a loan to be made at some future date.

## Interest rate agreement

An agreement whereby one party, for an upfront premium, agrees to compensate the
other at specific time periods if a designated interest rate (the reference rate) is different from a predetermined
level (the strike rate).

## Interest rate cap

Also called an interest rate ceiling, an interest rate agreement in which payments are made
when the reference rate exceeds the strike rate.

## Interest rate ceiling

Related: interest rate cap.

## Interest rate floor

An interest rate agreement in which payments are made when the reference rate falls
below the strike rate.

## Interest rate on debt

The firm's cost of debt capital.

## Interest rate parity theorem

interest rate differential between two countries is equal to the difference
between the forward foreign exchange rate and the spot rate.

## Interest rate risk

The risk that a security's value changes due to a change in interest rates. For example, a
bond's price drops as interest rates rise. For a depository institution, also called funding risk, the risk that
spread income will suffer because of a change in interest rates.

## Interest rate swap

A binding agreement between counterparties to exchange periodic interest payments on
some predetermined dollar principal, which is called the notional principal amount. For example, one party
will pay fixed and receive variable. ## Nominal interest rate

The interest rate unadjusted for inflation.

## Real interest rate

The rate of interest excluding the effect of inflation; that is, the rate that is earned in terms
of constant-purchasing-power dollars. interest rate expressed in terms of real goods, i.e. nominal interest rate

## Spot interest rate

interest rate fixed today on a loan that is made today. Related: forward interest rates.

## Stated annual interest rate

The interest rate expressed as a per annum percentage, by which interest
payment is determined.

## Effective Interest Rate

The rate of interest actually earned on an investment. It is
calculated as the ratio of the total amount of interest actually
earned for one year divided by the amount of the principal.

## Nominal Interest Rate

The rate of interest quoted, or stated, to be paid on a security

## Real Interest Rate

The rate of interest paid on an investment adjusted for inflation

## effective annual interest rate

interest rate that is annualized using compound interest.

## interest rate parity

Theory that forward premium equals interest rate differential.

## nominal interest rate

rate at which money invested grows.

## real interest rate

rate at which the purchasing power of an investment increases.

## Interest Rate Differential

The interest rate on our financial assets minus the interest rate on a foreign country's financial assets.

## Interest Rate, Nominal

Payment for the use of borrowed funds, measured as a percentage per year of these funds.

## Interest Rate Parity

Theory that real interest rates are approximately the same across countries except for a risk premium.

## Interest Rate, Real

Nominal interest rate less expected inflation.

## Term Structure of Interest Rates

Relationship among interest rates on bonds with different terms to maturity.

## Fixed Interest Rate

A rate that does not fluctuate with general market conditions.

## Floating Interest Rate

A rate that fluctuates with general market condition.

## Interest Rate

Cost of using money, expressed as a rate per period of time, usually one year.

## Interest Rate Risk

Possibility that interest rates will rise during the term of a loan thereby increasing the annual cost of borrowing.

## Nominal Interest Rate

The contracted, or stated, interest rate, undeflated for price level changes.

## tiered interest rate

A pre-set scale of interest which is based on the premise that higher sums of money earn higher rates of interest.

## Interest Rate

rate charged or paid for the use of money, normally expressed as a percentage

## Anticipation

Arrangements whereby customers who pay before the final date may be entitled to deduct a
normal rate of interest.

## Coupon rate

In bonds, notes or other fixed income securities, the stated percentage rate of interest, usually
paid twice a year.

## Immunization strategy

A bond portfolio strategy whose goal is to eliminate the portfolio's risk against a
general change in the rate of interest through the use of duration.

## Interest payments

Contractual debt payments based on the coupon rate of interest and the principal amount.

## LIBOR

The London Interbank Offered rate; the rate of interest that major international banks in London
charge each other for borrowings. Many variable interest rates in the U.S. are based on spreads off of LIBOR.
There are many different LIBOR tenors.

## Market clearing

Total demand for loans by borrowers equals total supply of loans from lenders. The market,
any market, clears at the equilibrium rate of interest or price.

## Pay-up

The loss of cash resulting from a swap into higher price bonds or the need/willingness of a bank or
other borrower to pay a higher rate of interest to get funds.

## Yield

The percentage rate of return paid on a stock in the form of dividends, or the effective rate of interest
paid on a bond or note.

## Bond

A long-term debt instrument in which the issuer (borrower) is
obligated to pay the investor (lender) a specified amount of
money, usually at specific intervals, and to repay the principal
amount of the loan at maturity. The periodic payments are based
on the rate of interest agreed upon at the time the instrument is
sold.

## Coupon Rate

The rate of interest paid on a debt security. Generally stated on an
annual basis, even if the payments are made at some other
interval.

## Discount Rate

The rate of interest used to calculate the present value of a stream
of future cash flows

## present value (PV)

the amount that one or more future cash
flows is worth currently, given a specified rate of interest

## Internal rate of return

a. The average annual yield earned by an investment during the period held.
b. The effective rate of interest on a loan.
c. The discount rate in discounted cash flow analysis.
d. The rate that adjusts the value of future cash receipts earned by an investment so that interest earned equals the original cost.
See Yield to maturity.

## prime rate

The rate of interest that Canadian financial institutions charge on Canadian dollar loans to certain customers. It is based on the rate established by the Bank of Canada. Typically, all financial institutions have the same prime rate.

## discount rate

the rate of return on investment that would be required by a prudent investor to invest in an asset with a specific level risk. Also, a rate of return used to convert a monetary sum, payable or receivable in the future, into present value.

## fractional interest discount

the combined discounts for lack of control and marketability. g the constant growth rate in cash flows or net income used in the ADF, Gordon model, or present value factor.

## Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS)

Schedule of depreciation rates allowed for tax purposes.

## Accelerated depreciation

Any depreciation method that produces larger deductions for depreciation in the
early years of a project's life. Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS), which is a depreciation schedule
allowed for tax purposes, is one such example.

## Accrued interest

The accumulated coupon interest earned but not yet paid to the seller of a bond by the
buyer (unless the bond is in default).

## Active portfolio strategy

A strategy that uses available information and forecasting techniques to seek a
better performance than a portfolio that is simply diversified broadly. Related: passive portfolio strategy

## Adjustable rate preferred stock (ARPS)

Publicly traded issues that may be collateralized by mortgages and MBSs.

## After-tax real rate of return

Money after-tax rate of return minus the inflation rate.

## All equity rate

The discount rate that reflects only the business risks of a project and abstracts from the
effects of financing.

## Annual percentage rate (APR)

The periodic rate times the number of periods in a year. For example, a 5%
quarterly return has an APR of 20%.

## Arithmetic average (mean) rate of return

Arithmetic mean return.

## Auction rate preferred stock (ARPS)

Floating rate preferred stock, the dividend on which is adjusted every
seven weeks through a Dutch auction.

## Average rate of return (ARR)

The ratio of the average cash inflow to the amount invested.

## Average tax rate

Taxes as a fraction of income; total taxes divided by total taxable income.

## Barbell strategy

A strategy in which the maturities of the securities included in the portfolio are concentrated
at two extremes.

Key strategies a firm intends to pursue in carrying out its business plan.

## Best-interests-of-creditors test

The requirement that a claim holder voting against a plan of reorganization
must receive at least as much as he would have if the debtor were liquidated.

## Break-even payment rate

The prepayment rate of a MBS coupon that will produce the same CFY as that of
a predetermined benchmark MBS coupon. Used to identify for coupons higher than the benchmark coupon
the prepayment rate that will produce the same CFY as that of the benchmark coupon; and for coupons lower
than the benchmark coupon the lowest prepayment rate that will do so.

## Break-even tax rate

The tax rate at which a party to a prospective transaction is indifferent between entering
into and not entering into the transaction.

## Broker loan rate

Related: Call money rate.

## Bullet strategy

A strategy in which a portfolio is constructed so that the maturities of its securities are highly
concentrated at one point on the yield curve.

A passive investment strategy with no active buying and selling of stocks from the
time the portfolio is created until the end of the investment horizon.

## Call money rate

Also called the broker loan rate , the interest rate that banks charge brokers to finance
margin loans to investors. The broker charges the investor the call money rate plus a service charge.

## Capitalized interest

interest that is not immediately expensed, but rather is considered as an asset and is then
amortized through the income statement over time.

## Cash flow after interest and taxes

Net income plus depreciation.

## Combination strategy

A strategy in which a put and with the same strike price and expiration are either both
bought or both sold. Related: Straddle

## Compound interest

interest paid on previously earned interest as well as on the principal.

## Conglomerate

A firm engaged in two or more unrelated businesses.

## Conglomerate merger

A merger involving two or more firms that are in unrelated businesses.

## Corporate acquisition

The acquisition of one firm by anther firm.

## Corporate bonds

Debt obligations issued by corporations.

## Corporate charter

A legal document creating a corporation.

## Corporate finance

One of the three areas of the discipline of finance. It deals with the operation of the firm
(both the investment decision and the financing decision) from that firm's point of view.

## Corporate financial management

The application of financial principals within a corporation to create and
maintain value through decision making and proper resource management.

## Corporate financial planning

Financial planning conducted by a firm that encompasses preparation of both
long- and short-term financial plans.

## Corporate processing float

The time that elapses between receipt of payment from a customer and the
depositing of the customer's check in the firm's bank account; the time required to process customer
payments.

## Corporate tax view

The argument that double (corporate and individual) taxation of equity returns makes
debt a cheaper financing method.

## Corporate taxable equivalent

rate of return required on a par bond to produce the same after-tax yield to
maturity that the premium or discount bond quoted would.

## Covered call writing strategy

A strategy that involves writing a call option on securities that the investor
owns in his or her portfolio. See covered or hedge option strategies.

## Covered interest arbitrage

A portfolio manager invests dollars in an instrument denominated in a foreign
currency and hedges his resulting foreign exchange risk by selling the proceeds of the investment forward for
dollars.

## Covered or hedge option strategies

Strategies that involve a position in an option as well as a position in the
underlying stock, designed so that one position will help offset any unfavorable price movement in the other,
including covered call writing and protective put buying. Related: naked strategies

## Crediting rate

The interest rate offered on an investment type insurance policy.

## Cross rates

The exchange rate between two currencies expressed as the ratio of two foreign exchange rates
that are both expressed in terms of a third currency.

## Crossover rate

The return at which two alternative projects have the same net present value.

## Current rate method

Under this currency translation method, all foreign currency balance-sheet and income
statement items are translated at the current exchange rate.

## Dedication strategy

Refers to multi-period cash flow matching.