Financial Terms
Put-call parity relationship

Main Page

Alphabetical
Index

SEARCH


Information about financial, finance, business, accounting, payroll, inventory, investment, money, inventory control, stock trading, financial advisor, tax advisor, credit.

 


Main Page: payroll, business, tax advisor, stock trading, financial advisor, money, finance, credit,

Definition of Put-call parity relationship

Put-call Parity Relationship Image 1

Put-call parity relationship

The relationship between the price of a put and the price of a call on the same
underlying security with the same expiration date, which prevents arbitrage opportunities. Holding the stock
and buying a put will deliver the exact payoff as buying one call and investing the present value (PV) of the
exercise price. The call value equals C=S+P-PV(k).



Related Terms:

acid test ratio (also called the quick ratio)

The sum of cash, accounts receivable, and short-term marketable
investments (if any) is divided by
total current liabilities to compute this ratio. Suppose that the short-term
creditors were to pounce on a business and not agree to roll over the
debts owed to them by the business. In this rather extreme scenario, the
acid test ratio reveals whether its cash and near-cash assets are enough
to pay its short-term current liabilities. This ratio is an extreme test that
is not likely to be imposed on a business unless it is in financial straits.
This ratio is quite relevant when a business is in a liquidation situation
or bankruptcy proceedings.


Call

An option that gives the right to buy the underlying futures contract.


Call

a. An option to buy a certain quantity of a stock or commodity for a
specified price within a specified time. See put.
b. A demand to submit bonds to the issuer for redemption before the maturity date.
c. A demand for payment of a debt.
d. A demand for payment due on stock bought on margin.


Call an option

To exercise a call option.


Call date

A date before maturity, specified at issuance, when the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond
for a specified call price.



Call money rate

Also called the broker loan rate , the interest rate that banks charge brokers to finance
margin loans to investors. The broker charges the investor the call money rate plus a service charge.


Call option

An option contract that gives its holder the right (but not the obligation) to purchase a specified
number of shares of the underlying stock at the given strike price, on or before the expiration date of the
contract.
call premium
Premium in price above the par value of a bond or share of preferred stock that must be paid to
holders to redeem the bond or share of preferred stock before its scheduled maturity date.


Put-call Parity Relationship Image 2

Call Option

A contract that gives the holder the right to buy an asset for a
specified price on or before a given expiration (maturity) date


call option

Right to buy an asset at a specified exercise price on or before the exercise date.


Call price

The price, specified at issuance, at which the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond at a
specified call date.


Call price

The price for which a bond can be repaid before maturity under a call provision.


Call protection

A feature of some callable bonds that establishes an initial period when the bonds may not be
called.


Call provision

An embedded option granting a bond issuer the right to buy back all or part of the issue prior
to maturity.


Call risk

The combination of cash flow uncertainty and reinvestment risk introduced by a call provision.


Call swaption

A swaption in which the buyer has the right to enter into a swap as a fixed-rate payer. The
writer therefore becomes the fixed-rate receiver/floating rate payer.


Callable

A financial security such as a bond with a call option attached to it, i.e., the issuer has the right to
call the security.


Callable bond

A bond that allows the issuer to buy back the bond at a
predetermined price at specified future dates. The bond contains an embedded
call option; i.e., the holder has sold a call option to the issuer. See puttable
bond.


callable bond

Bond that may be repurchased by the issuer before maturity at specified call price.



computer-aided design (CAD)

a system using computer graphics for product designs


computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)

the use of computers to control production processes through numerically
controlled (NC) machines, robots, and automated assembly systems


computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)

the integration of two or more flexible manufacturing systems through the use of a host computer and an information networking system


Conversion parity price

Related:Market conversion price


Covered call

A short call option position in which the writer owns the number of shares of the underlying
stock represented by the option contracts. Covered calls generally limit the risk the writer takes because the
stock does not have to be bought at the market price, if the holder of that option decides to exercise it.


Covered call writing strategy

A strategy that involves writing a call option on securities that the investor
owns in his or her portfolio. See covered or hedge option strategies.


Covered Put

A put option position in which the option writer also is short the corresponding stock or has
deposited, in a cash account, cash or cash equivalents equal to the exercise of the option. This limits the
option writer's risk because money or stock is already set aside. In the event that the holder of the put option
decides to exercise the option, the writer's risk is more limited than it would be on an uncovered or naked put
option.


Debt service parity approach

An analysis wherein the alternatives under consideration will provide the firm
with the exact same schedule of after-tax debt payments (including both interest and principal).


Deferred call

A provision that prohibits the company from calling the bond before a certain date. During this
period the bond is said to be call protected.


economically reworked

when the incremental revenue from the sale of reworked defective units is greater than
the incremental cost of the rework



Effective call price

The strike price in an optional redemption provision plus the accrued interest to the
redemption date.


Expected return-beta relationship

Implication of the CAPM that security risk premiums will be
proportional to beta.


First-call

With CMOs, the start of the cash flow cycle for the cash flow window.


Full-Employment Output

The level of output produced by the economy when operating at the natural rate of unemployment.


Implied call

The right of the homeowner to prepay, or call, the mortgage at any time.


Imputation tax system

Arrangement by which investors who receive a dividend also receive a tax credit for
corporate taxes that the firm has paid.


Impute

To assign a value to a good or service in place of a market value that is not available.


Imputed Rent

The value of consumption services obtained by owning one's house rather than having to pay rent.


input-output coefficient

a number (prefaced as a multiplier
to an unknown variable) that indicates the rate at which each
decision variable uses up (or depletes) the scarce resource


Input-output tables

Tables that indicate how much each industry requires of the production of each other
industry in order to produce each dollar of its own output.


interest rate parity

Theory that forward premium equals interest rate differential.


Interest Rate Parity

Theory that real interest rates are approximately the same across countries except for a risk premium.


Interest rate parity theorem

Interest rate differential between two countries is equal to the difference
between the forward foreign exchange rate and the spot rate.


Irrational call option

The implied call imbedded in the MBS. Identified as irrational because the call is
sometimes not exercised when it is in the money (interest rates are below the threshold to refinance).
Sometimes exercised when not in the money (home sold without regard to the relative level of interest rates).


Margin call

A demand for additional funds because of adverse price movement. Maintenance margin
requirement, security deposit maintenance
Margin of safety With respect to working capital management, the difference between 1) the amount of longterm
financing, and 2) the sum of fixed assets and the permanent component of current assets.


National Output

GDP.


net income (also called the bottom line, earnings, net earnings, and net

operating earnings)
This key figure equals sales revenue for a period
less all expenses for the period; also, any extraordinary gains and losses
for the period are included in this final profit figure. Everything is taken
into account to arrive at net income, which is popularly called the bottom
line. Net income is clearly the single most important number in business
financial reports.


Output Gap

The difference between full employment output and current output.


Parity value

Related:conversion value


Poison put

A covenant allowing the bondholder to demand repayment in the event of a hostile merger.


Potential Output or Potential GDP

Output produced when the economy is operating at its natural rate of unemployment.


Price-volume relationship

A relationship espoused by some technical analysts that signals continuing rises
and falls in security prices based on accompanying changes in volume traded.


Principal-agent relationship

A situation that can be modeled as one person, an agent, who acts on the behalf
of another person, the principal.


Protective put buying strategy

A strategy that involves buying a put option on the underlying security that is
held in a portfolio. Related: Hedge option strategies


Provisional call feature

A feature in a convertible issue that allows the issuer to call the issue during the noncall
period if the price of the stock reaches a certain level.


Purchasing power parity

The notion that the ratio between domestic and foreign price levels should equal
the equilibrium exchange rate between domestic and foreign currencies.


Purchasing Power Parity

Theory that says that over the long run exchange rate changes offset any difference between foreign and domestic inflation. This result assumes that the real exchange rate remains constant, something that is not true even in the long run.


purchasing power parity (PPP)

Theory that the cost of living in different countries is equal, and exchange rates adjust to offset inflation differentials across countries.


Put

An option granting the right to sell the underlying futures contract. Opposite of a call.


Put

An option to sell a stipulated amount of stock or securities within a
specified time and at a fixed exercise price. See call.


Put an option

To exercise a put option.


Put bond

A bond that the holder may choose either to exchange for par value at some date or to extend for a
given number of years.


Put option

This security gives investors the right to sell (or put) fixed number of shares at a fixed price within
a given time frame. An investor, for example, might wish to have the right to sell shares of a stock at a certain
price by a certain time in order to protect, or hedge, an existing investment.


Put Option

A contract that gives the holder the right to sell an asset for a
specified price on or before a given expiration (maturity) date


put option

Right to sell an asset at a specified exercise price on or before the exercise date.


Put Option

Contract that grants the right to sell at a specified price at some time in the future.


Put price

The price at which the asset will be sold if a put option is exercised. Also called the strike or
exercise price of a put option.


Put provision

Gives the holder of a floating-rate bond the right to redeem his note at par on the coupon
payment date.


Put swaption

A financial tool in which the buyer has the right, or option, to enter into a swap as a floatingrate
payer. The writer of the swaption therefore becomes the floating-rate receiver/fixed-rate payer.


Putaway

The process of moving received items to storage and recording the related
transaction.


Puttable bond

A bond that allows the holder to redeem the bond at a
predetermined price at specified future dates. The bond contains an embedded
put option; i.e., the holder has bought a put option. See callable bond.


Relative purchasing power parity (RPPP)

Idea that the rate of change in the price level of commodities in
one country relative to the price level in another determines the rate of change of the exchange rate between
the two countries' currencies.


Spot futures parity theorem

Describes the theoretically correct relationship between spot and futures prices.
Violation of the parity relationship gives rise to arbitrage opportunities.


throughput

the total completed and sold output of a plant during a period


Throughput agreement

An agreement to put a specified amount of product per period through a particular
facility. For example, an agreement to ship a specified amount of crude oil per period through a particular
pipeline.


Throughput contribution

Sales revenue less the cost of materials.


Transferable put right

An option issued by the firm to its shareholders to sell the firm one share of its
common stock at a fixed price (the strike price) within a stated period (the time to maturity). The put right is
"transferable" because it can be traded in the capital markets.


Uncovered call

A short call option position in which the writer does not own shares of underlying stock
represented by his option contracts. Also called a "naked" call, it is much riskier for the writer than a covered
call, where the writer owns the underlying stock. If the buyer of a call exercises the option to call, the writer
would be forced to buy the stock at market price.


Uncovered put

A short put option position in which the writer does not have a corresponding short stock
position or has not deposited, in a cash account, cash or cash equivalents equal to the exercise value of the
put. Also called "naked" puts, the writer has pledged to buy the stock at a certain price if the buyer of the
options chooses to exercise it. The nature of uncovered options means the writer's risk is unlimited.


Yield to call

The percentage rate of a bond or note, if you were to buy and hold the security until the call date.
This yield is valid only if the security is called prior to maturity. Generally bonds are callable over several
years and normally are called at a slight premium. The calculation of yield to call is based on the coupon rate,
length of time to the call and the market price.



 

 

 

 

 

 

Related to : financial, finance, business, accounting, payroll, inventory, investment, money, inventory control, stock trading, financial advisor, tax advisor, credit.


Copyrightę 2019 www.finance-lib.com