Definition of Matching Principle
An accounting principle that ties expense recognition to revenue recognition,
dictating that efforts, as represented by expenses, are to be matched with accomplishments,
that is, revenue, whenever it is reasonable and practicable to do so.
The process of linking recognized revenue to any associated
costs, thereby showing the net impact of all transactions related to the recognition
Also called dedicating a portfolio, this is an alternative to multiperiod immunization in
which the manager matches the maturity of each element in the liability stream, working backward from the
last liability to assure all required cash flows.
A change from one generally accepted accounting principle to another generally accepted accounting principle—for example, a change from capitalizing expenditures
to expensing them. A change in accounting principle is accounted for in most instances
as a cumulative-effect–type adjustment.
Also called horizon matching, a variation of multiperiod immunization and cash
flow matching in which a portfolio is created that is always duration matched and also cash-matched in the
first few years.
This is the principle which specifies the factors that must be taken into account when calculating dividends. At Canada Life, the key factors are: interest earnings, mortality, and operating expense.
The change in earnings of previous years
based on the assumption that a newly adopted accounting principle had previously been in use.
A bond portfolio management strategy that involves finding the lowest cost portfolio
generating cash inflows exactly equal to cash outflows that are being financed by investment.
The rules that accountants follow when processing accounting transactions and creating financial reports. The rules are primarily
derived from regulations promulgated by the various branches of the AICPA Council.
This important term
refers to the body of authoritative rules for measuring profit and preparing
financial statements that are included in financial reports by a business
to its outside shareowners and lenders. The development of these
guidelines has been evolving for more than 70 years. Congress passed a
law in 1934 that bestowed primary jurisdiction over financial reporting
by publicly owned businesses to the Securities and Exchange Commission
(SEC). But the SEC has largely left the development of GAAP to the
private sector. Presently, the Financial Accounting Standards Board is
the primary (but not the only) authoritative body that makes pronouncements
on GAAP. One caution: GAAP are like a movable feast. New rules
are issued fairly frequently, old rules are amended from time to time,
and some rules established years ago are discarded on occasion. Professional
accountants have a heck of time keeping up with GAAP, that’s for
sure. Also, new GAAP rules sometimes have the effect of closing the barn
door after the horse has left. Accounting abuses occur, and only then,
after the damage has been done, are new rules issued to prevent such
abuses in the future.
Procedures for preparing financial statements.
A common set of standards and procedures
for the preparation of general-purpose financial statements that either have been established
by an authoritative accounting rule-making body, such as the Financial Accounting
Standards Board (FASB), or over time have become accepted practice because of their universal
GAAP is the term used to describe the underlying rules basis on which financial statements are normally prepared. This is codified in the Handbook of The Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants.
The law of averages. The average outcome for many independent trials of an experiment
will approach the expected value of the experiment.
See accruals accounting.
The accounting principle that requires the recognition of all costs that are associated with
the generation of the revenue reported in the income statement.
a rule which states that the greatest effects
in human endeavors are traceable to a small number of
causes (the vital few), while the majority of causes (the
trivial many) collectively yield only a small impact; this
relationship is often referred to as the 20:80 rule
Investment principle that states a firm should accept or reject a project by comparing it
with securities in the same risk class.
Symmetric cash matching
An extension of cash flow matching that allows for the short-term borrowing of
funds to satisfy a liability prior to the liability due date, resulting in a reduction in the cost of funding liabilities.
Systematic risk principle
Only the systematic portion of risk matters in large, well-diversified portfolios.
The, expected returns must be related only to systematic risks.
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