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Definition of Long-term

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Long-term

In accounting information, one year or greater.



Related Terms:

Long-term assets

Value of property, equipment and other capital assets minus the depreciation. This is an
entry in the bookkeeping records of a company, usually on a "cost" basis and thus does not necessarily reflect
the market value of the assets.


Long-term debt

An obligation having a maturity of more than one year from the date it was issued. Also
called funded debt.


Long-term debt/capitalization

Indicator of financial leverage. Shows long-term debt as a proportion of the
capital available. Determined by dividing long-term debt by the sum of long-term debt, preferred stock and
common stockholder equity.


Long-term debt ratio

The ratio of long-term debt to total capitalization.


Long-term financial plan

Financial plan covering two or more years of future operations.


Long-term liabilities

Amount owed for leases, bond repayment and other items due after 1 year.


Long-term debt to equity ratio

A capitalization ratio comparing long-term debt to shareholders' equity.


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Other long term liabilities

Value of leases, future employee benefits, deferred taxes and other obligations
not requiring interest payments that must be paid over a period of more than 1 year.


LONG-TERM LIABILITIES

Bills that are payable in more than one year, such as a mortgage or bonds.


Long-term liabilities

Amounts owing after more than one year.


Long-term debt

A debt for which payments will be required for a period of more than
one year into the future.


Long Term Debt

Liability due in a year or more.


Longer-Term Fixed Assets

Assets having a useful life greater than one year but the duration of the 'long term' will vary with the context in which the term is applied.


BAN (Bank anticipation notes)

Notes issued by states and municipalities to obtain interim financing for
projects that will eventually be funded long term through the sale of a bond issue.


Depreciation

A non-cash expense that provides a source of free cash flow. Amount allocated during the
period to amortize the cost of acquiring long term assets over the useful life of the assets.


Yield curve

The graphical depiction of the relationship between the yield on bonds of the same credit quality
but different maturities. Related: term structure of interest rates. Harvey (1991) finds that the inversions of
the yield curve (short-term rates greater than long term rates) have preceded the last five U.S. recessions. The
yield curve can accurately forecast the turning points of the business cycle.


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Segregated Fund

Sometimes called seg funds, segregated funds are the life insurance industry equivalent to a mutual fund with some differences.The term "Mutual Fund" is often used generically, to cover a wide variety of funds where the investment capital from a large number of investors is "pooled" together and invested into specific stocks, bonds, mortgages, etc.
Since Segregated Funds are actually deferred annuity contracts issued by life insurance companies, they offer probate and creditor protection if a preferred beneficiary such as a spouse is named. Mutual Funds don't have this protection.
Unlike mutual funds, segregated funds offer guarantees at maturity (usually 10 years from date of issue) or death on the limit of potential losses - at times up to 100% of original deposits are guaranteed which makes them an attractive alternative for the cautious and/or long term investor. On the other hand, with regular mutual funds, it is possible to have little or nothing left at death or plan maturity.


Money Market

Financial market in which funds are borrowed or lent for short periods. (The money market is distinguished from the capital market, which is the market for long term funds.)


Permanent Capital

Financing needed for the normal operation of a business, that is long term capital and working capital.


Canada Pension Plan (CPP)

A plan that provides retirement and long term disability income benefits to residents of Canadian provinces (excluding Quebec).


Coefficient of determination

A measure of the goodness of fit of the relationship between the dependent and
independent variables in a regression analysis; for instance, the percentage of variation in the return of an
asset explained by the market portfolio return.


Deterministic models

Liability-matching models that assume that the liability payments and the asset cash
flows are known with certainty. Related: Compare stochastic models


Disintermediation

Withdrawal of funds from a financial institution in order to invest them directly.


Euro-medium term note (Euro-MTN)

A non-underwritten Euronote issued directly to the market. Euro-
MTNs are offered continuously rather than all at once as a bond issue is. Most Euro-MTN maturities are
under five years.


Financial intermediaries

Institutions that provide the market function of matching borrowers and lenders or
traders.


Intermarket sector

spread The spread between the interest rate offered in two sectors of the bond market for
issues of the same maturity.


Intermarket spread swaps

An exchange of one bond for another based on the manager's projection of a
realignment of spreads between sectors of the bond market.


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Intermediate-term

Typically 1-10 years.


Intermediation

Investment through a financial institution. Related: disintermediation.


Liquidity theory of the term structure

A biased expectations theory that asserts that the implied forward
rates will not be a pure estimate of the market's expectations of future interest rates because they embody a
liquidity premium.


Long

One who has bought a contract(s) to establish a market position and who has not yet closed out this
position through an offsetting sale; the opposite of short.


Long bonds

Bonds with a long current maturity. The "long bond" is the 30-year U.S. government bond.


Long coupons

1) Bonds or notes with a long current maturity.
2) A bond on which one of the coupon periods, usually the first, is longer than the other periods or the standard period.


Long hedge

The purchase of a futures contract(s) in anticipation of actual purchases in the cash market. Used
by processors or exporters as protection against an advance in the cash price. Related: Hedge, short hedge


Long position

An options position where a person has executed one or more option trades where the net
result is that they are an "owner" or holder of options (i. e. the number of contracts bought exceeds the
number of contracts sold).
Occurs when an individual owns securities. An owner of 1,000 shares of stock is said to be "long the stock."
Related: Short position


Long run

A period of time in which all costs are variable; greater than one year.
long straddle A straddle in which a long position is taken in both a put and call option.


Long bonds

Bonds with a long current maturity. The "long bond" is the 30-year U.S. government bond.


Long coupons

1) Bonds or notes with a long current maturity.
2) A bond on which one of the coupon
periods, usually the first, is longer than the other periods or the standard period.


Long run

A period of time in which all costs are variable; greater than one year.


Long straddle

A straddle in which a long position is taken in both a put and call option.


Medium-term note

A corporate debt instrument that is continuously offered to investors over a period of
time by an agent of the issuer. Investors can select from the following maturity bands: 9 months to 1 year,
more than 1 year to 18 months, more than 18 months to 2 years, etc., up to 30 years.


Short-term financial plan

A financial plan that covers the coming fiscal year.


Short-term investment services

Services that assist firms in making short-term investments.


Short-term solvency ratios

Ratios used to judge the adequacy of liquid assets for meeting short-term
obligations as they come due, including
1) the current ratio,
2) the acid-test ratio,
3) the inventory turnover ratio, and
4) the accounts receivable turnover ratio.


Short-term tax exempts

Short-term securities issued by states, municipalities, local housing agencies, and
urban renewal agencies.


Term bonds

Often referred to as bullet-maturity bonds or simply bullet bonds, bonds whose principal is
payable at maturity. Related: serial bonds


Term Fed Funds

Fed Funds sold for a period of time longer than overnight.


Term life insurance

A contract that provides a death benefit but no cash build-up or investment component.
The premium remains constant only for a specified term of years, and the policy is usually renewable at the
end of each term.


Term loan

A bank loan, typically with a floating interest rate, for a specified amount that matures in between
one and ten years and requires a specified repayment schedule.


Term insurance

Provides a death benefit only, no build-up of cash value.


Term repo

A repurchase agreement with a term of more than one day.
term structure of interest rates
Relationship between interest rates on bonds of different maturities usually
depicted in the form of a graph often depicted as a yield curve. Harvey shows that inverted term structures
(long rates below short rates) have preceded every recession over the past 30 years.


Term to maturity

The time remaining on a bond's life, or the date on which the debt will cease to exist and
the borrower will have completely paid off the amount borrowed. See: Maturity.


Term premiums

Excess of the yields to maturity on long-term bonds over those of short-term bonds.


Term trust

A closed-end fund that has a fixed termination or maturity date.


Terminal value

The value of a bond at maturity, typically its par value, or the value of an asset (or an entire
firm) on some specified future valuation date.


Terms of sale

Conditions on which a firm proposes to sell its goods services for cash or credit.


Terms of trade

The weighted average of a nation's export prices relative to its import prices.


coefficient of determination

a measure of dispersion that
indicates the “goodness of fit” of the actual observations
to the least squares regression line; indicates what proportion
of the total variation in y is explained by the regression model


predetermined overhead rate

an estimated constant charge per unit of activity used to assign overhead cost to production or services of the period; it is calculated by dividing total budgeted annual overhead at a selected level of volume or activity by that selected measure of volume or activity; it is also the standard overhead application rate


Long position

Outright ownership of a security or financial instrument. The
owner expects the price to rise in order to make a profit on some future sale.


Long rate

The yield on a zero-coupon Treasury bond.


Term structure

The relationship between the yields on fixed-interest
securities and their maturity dates. Expectation of changes in interest rates
affects term structure, as do liquidity preferences and hedging pressure. A
yield curve is one representation in the term structure.


financial intermediary

Firm that raises money from many small investors and provides financing to businesses or other
organizations by investing in their securities.


long position

Purchase of an investment.


terms of sale

Credit, discount, and payment terms offered on a sale.


Financial Intermediary

Any institution, such as a bank, that takes deposits from savers and loans them to borrowers.


Financial Intermediation

The process whereby financial intermediaries channel funds from lender/savers to borrower/spenders.


Intermediate Good

A good used in producing another good.


Term

See term to maturity.


Term Deposit

An interest-earning bank deposit that cannot be withdrawn without penalty until a specific time.


Term to Maturity

Period of time from the present to the redemption date of a bond.


Term Structure of Interest Rates

Relationship among interest rates on bonds with different terms to maturity.


Terms of Trade

The quantity of imports that can be obtained for a unit of exports, measured by the ratio of an export price index to an import price index.


Termination Pay

Additional pay due to an employee whose employment is
being terminated, usually in accordance with a termination pay schedule contained
within the employee manual.


Term Life Insurance

A plan of insurance which covers the insured for only a certain period of time and not necessarily for his or her entire life. The policy pays a death benefit only if the insured dies during the term.


Yearly Renewable Term Insurance

Sometimes, simply called YRT, this is a form of term life insurance that may be renewed annually without evidence of insurability to a stated age.


Credit Terms

Conditions under which credit is extended by a lender to a borrower.


Flexible Term

Optional periods of time which the conditions of a contract will be carried out.


Intermediary

An independent third party that may act as a mediator during negotiations.


Repayment Terms

The length of time given a borrower by a lender to repay a debt and the frequency of principal payments which the borrower has to meet.


Term

This is usually the duration of a loan.


Term Loan

A secured loan made to business concerns for a specific period (normally three to ten years). It is repaid with interest, usually with periodical payments.


Term Sheet

A list of the major points of the proposed financing being offered by an investor.


term

The period of time during which a financial contract – such as a GIC or a loan – is in force.


Term

The time period during which a policy is in force, or the time it takes for a policy to reach maturity.


Term Life

A product that provides life coverage for a specified duration typically not beyond the age of 75.


Terminal Illness Insurance (Credit Insurance)

Coverage that provides a lump-sum payment should you become terminally ill. The payment is made to your creditors to pay off your debt owing.


Terminate

Cease all legal obligations under a contract.


CARs (cumulative abnormal returns)

a measure used in academic finance articles to measure the excess returns an investor would have received over a particular time period if he or she were invested in a particular stock.
This is typically used in control and takeover studies, where stockholders are paid a premium for being taken over. Starting some time period before the takeover (often five days before the first announced bid, but sometimes a longer period), the researchers calculate the actual daily stock returns for the target firm and subtract out the expected market returns (usually calculated using the firm’s beta and applying it to overall market movements during the time period under observation).
The excess actual return over the capital asset pricing model-determined expected return market is called an ‘‘abnormal return.’’ The cumulation of the daily abnormal returns over the time period under observation is the CAR. The term CAR(-5, 0) means the CAR calculated from five days before the
announcement to the day of announcement. The CAR(-1, 0) is a control premium, although Mergerstat generally uses the stock price five days before announcement rather than one day before announcement as the denominator in its control premium calculation. However, the CAR for any period other than (-1, 0) is not mathematically equivalent to a control premium.


Capital budgeting

The process of choosing the firm's long-term capital assets.


Capital expenditures

Amount used during a particular period to acquire or improve long-term assets such as
property, plant or equipment.


Capital market

The market for trading long-term debt instruments (those that mature in more than one year).


Capitalization table

A table showing the capitalization of a firm, which typically includes the amount of
capital obtained from each source - long-term debt and common equity - and the respective capitalization
ratios.


Corporate financial planning

Financial planning conducted by a firm that encompasses preparation of both
long- and short-term financial plans.


Customized benchmarks

A benchmark that is designed to meet a client's requirements and long-term
objectives.


Debt/equity ratio

Indicator of financial leverage. Compares assets provided by creditors to assets provided
by shareholders. Determined by dividing long-term debt by common stockholder equity.


Dividend reinvestment plan (DRP)

Automatic reinvestment of shareholder dividends in more shares of a
company's stock, often without commissions. Some plans provide for the purchase of additional shares at a
discount to market price. Dividend reinvestment plans allow shareholders to accumulate stock over the long
term using dollar cost averaging. The DRP is usually administered by the company without charges to the
holder.


Financial lease

long-term, non-cancelable lease.


Fixed-charge coverage ratio

A measure of a firm's ability to meet its fixed-charge obligations: the ratio of
(net earnings before taxes plus interest charges paid plus long-term lease payments) to (interest charges paid
plus long-term lease payments).


 

 

 

 

 

 

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