 Financial Terms labor yield variance

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# Definition of labor yield variance ## labor yield variance

(standard mix X actual hours X standard rate) - (standard mix X standard hours X standard rate);
it shows the monetary impact of using more or fewer total hours than the standard allowed

# Related Terms:

## Annual percentage yield (APY)

The effective, or true, annual rate of return. The APY is the rate actually
earned or paid in one year, taking into account the affect of compounding. The APY is calculated by taking
one plus the periodic rate and raising it to the number of periods in a year. For example, a 1% per month rate
has an APY of 12.68% (1.01^12).

## Bond equivalent yield

Bond yield calculated on an annual percentage rate method. Differs from annual
effective yield.

## Bond-equivalent yield

The annualized yield to maturity computed by doubling the semiannual yield.

## Bond Equivalent Yield

Bond yield calculated on an annual percentage rate method

## budget variance

the difference between total actual overhead
and budgeted overhead based on standard hours allowed
for the production achieved during the period; computed
as part of two-variance overhead analysis; also
referred to as the controllable variance

## Capital gains yield

The price change portion of a stock's return.

## controllable variance

the budget variance of the two variance approach to analyzing overhead variances ## Convenience yield

The extra advantage that firms derive from holding the commodity rather than the future.

## Coupon equivalent yield

True interest cost expressed on the basis of a 365-day year.

## Covariance

A statistical measure of the degree to which random variables move together.

## Covariance

A measure of the degree to which returns on two assets move in
tandem. A positive covariance means that asset returns move together; a
negative covariance means they vary inversely.

## Current yield

For bonds or notes, the coupon rate divided by the market price of the bond.

## current yield

Annual coupon payments divided by bond price.

## Current Yield

The percentage return on a financial asset based on the current price of the asset, without reference to any expected change in the price of the asset. This contrasts with yield-to-maturity, for which the calculation includes expected price changes. See also yield.

## direct labor

the time spent by individuals who work specifically
on manufacturing a product or performing a service;
the cost of such time

## Direct labor

labor that is specifically incurred to create a product. ## Direct materials mix variance

The variance between the budgeted and actual mixes of
direct materials costs, both using the actual total quantity used. This variance isolates
the unit cost of each item, excluding all other variables.

## Dividend yield (Funds)

Indicated yield represents return on a share of a mutual fund held over the past 12
months. Assumes fund was purchased 1 year ago. Reflects effect of sales charges (at current rates), but not
redemption charges.

## dividend yield ratio

Cash dividends paid by a business over the most
recent 12 months (called the trailing 12 months) divided by the current
market price per share of the stock. This ratio is reported in the daily
stock trading tables in the Wall Street Journal and other major newspapers.

## Dividend yield (Stocks)

Indicated yield represents annual dividends divided by current stock price.

## Earnings yield

The ratio of earnings per share after allowing for tax and interest payments on fixed interest
debt, to the current share price. The inverse of the price/earnings ratio. It's the Total Twelve Months earnings
divided by number of outstanding shares, divided by the recent price, multiplied by 100. The end result is
shown in percentage.

## Effective annual yield

Annualized interest rate on a security computed using compound interest techniques.

## Effective Annual Yield

Annualized rate of return on a security computed using compound
interest techniques

## Equivalent bond yield

Annual yield on a short-term, non-interest bearing security calculated so as to be
comparable to yields quoted on coupon securities.

## Equivalent taxable yield

The yield that must be offered on a taxable bond issue to give the same after-tax
yield as a tax-exempt issue.

## Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938

A federal Act creating standards of overtime
pay, minimum wages, and payroll recordkeeping.

## fixed overhead spending variance

the difference between the total actual fixed overhead and budgeted fixed overhead;
it is computed as part of the four-variance overhead analysis

## fixed overhead volume variance

see volume variance

## Flattening of the yield curve

A change in the yield curve where the spread between the yield on a long-term
and short-term Treasury has decreased. Compare steepening of the yield curve and butterfly shift.

See:junk bond.

## Indicated yield

The yield, based on the most recent quarterly rate times four. To determine the yield, divide
the annual dividend by the price of the stock. The resulting number is represented as a percentage. See:
dividend yield.

## Indirect labor

The cost of any labor that supports the production process, but which is
not directly involved in the active conversion of materials into finished products.

## labor efficiency variance

the number of hours actually worked minus the standard hours allowed for the production
achieved multiplied by the standard rate to establish
a value for efficiency (favorable) or inefficiency (unfavorable)
of the work force

## Labor efficiency variance

The difference between the amount of time that was budgeted
to be used by the direct labor staff and the amount actually used, multiplied
by the standard labor rate per hour.

## Labor Force

Those people employed plus those actively seeking work.

## Labor Hoarding

Not laying off redundant workers during a recession to ensure that skilled and experienced workers are available after the recession.

## labor mix variance

(actual mix X actual hours X standard rate) - (standard mix X actual hours X standard rate);
it presents the financial effect associated with changing the
proportionate amount of higher or lower paid workers in production

## labor rate variance

the actual rate (or actual weighted average rate) paid to labor for the period minus the standard rate multiplied by all hours actually worked during the period;
it is actual labor cost minus (actual hours X standard rate)

## Labor rate variance

The difference between the actual and standard direct labor rates
actually paid to the direct labor staff, multiplied by the number of actual hours
worked.

## Liquid yield option note (LYON)

Zero-coupon, callable, putable, convertible bond invented by Merrill

## Liquid yield option note (LYON)

Zero-coupon, callable, putable, convertible bond invented by Merrill Lynch & Co.

## material mix variance

(actual mix X actual quantity X standard price) - (standard mix X actual quantity X standardprice);
it computes the monetary effect of substituting a nonstandard mix of material

## material price variance

total actual cost of material purchased
minus (actual quantity of material  standard
price); it is the amount of money spent below (favorable)
or in excess (unfavorable) of the standard price for the
quantity of materials purchased; it can be calculated based
on the actual quantity of material purchased or the actual
quantity used

## material quantity variance

(actual quantity X standard price) - (standard quantity allowed  standard price);
the standard cost saved (favorable) or expended (unfavorable)
due to the difference between the actual quantity
of material used and the standard quantity of material
allowed for the goods produced during the period

## material yield variance

(standard mix X actual quantity X standard price) - (standard mix X standard quantity X standard price);
it computes the difference between the
actual total quantity of input and the standard total quantity
allowed based on output and uses standard mix and
standard prices to determine variance

## Materials price variance

The difference between the actual and budgeted cost to
acquire materials, multiplied by the total number of units purchased.

## Materials quantity variance

The difference between the actual and budgeted quantities
of material used in the production process, multiplied by the standard cost per
unit.

## Mean-variance analysis

Evaluation of risky prospects based on the expected value and variance of possible outcomes.

## Mean-variance criterion

The selection of portfolios based on the means and variances of their returns. The
choice of the higher expected return portfolio for a given level of variance or the lower variance portfolio for
a given expected return.

## Mean-variance efficient portfolio

Related: Markowitz efficient portfolio

## Minimum-variance frontier

Graph of the lowest possible portfolio variance that is attainable for a given
portfolio expected return.

## Minimum-variance portfolio

The portfolio of risky assets with lowest variance.
Minority interest An outside ownership interest in a subsidiary that is consolidated with the parent for
financial reporting purposes.

## Non-parallel shift in the yield curve

A shift in the yield curve in which yields do not change by the same
number of basis points for every maturity. Related: Parallel shift in the yield curve.

## noncontrollable variance

the fixed overhead volume variance;
it is computed as part of the two-variance approach to overhead analysis

## overhead efficiency variance

the difference between total budgeted overhead at actual hours and total budgeted
overhead at standard hours allowed for the production
achieved; it is computed as part of a three-variance analysis;
it is the same as variable overhead efficiency variance

## overhead spending variance

the difference between total actual overhead and total budgeted overhead at actual
hours; it is computed as part of three-variance analysis; it
is equal to the sum of the variable and fixed overhead
spending variances

## Par yield curve

The yield curve of bonds selling at par, or face, value.

## Parallel shift in the yield curve

A shift in the yield curve in which the change in the yield on all maturities is
the same number of basis points. In other words, if the 3 month T-bill increases 100 basis points (one
percent), then the 6 month, 1 year, 5 year, 10 year, 20 year, and 30 year rates increase by 100 basis points as
well.
Related: Non-parallel shift in the yield curve.

## Portfolio variance

Weighted sum of the covariance and variances of the assets in a portfolio.

## process quality yield

the proportion of good units that resulted from the activities expended

## Production yield variance

The difference between the actual and budgeted proportions
of product resulting from a production process, multiplied by the standard unit cost.

## Pure yield pickup swap

Moving to higher yield bonds.

## Realized compound yield

yield assuming that coupon payments are invested at the going market interest
rate at the time of their receipt and rolled over until the bond matures.

## Relative yield spread

The ratio of the yield spread to the yield level.

## Reoffering yield

In a purchase and sale, the yield to maturity at which the underwriter offers to sell the bonds
to investors.

## Required yield

Generally referring to bonds, the yield required by the marketplace to match available returns
for financial instruments with comparable risk.

## Riding the yield curve

Buying long-term bonds in anticipation of capital gains as yields fall with the
declining maturity of the bonds.

## Selling price variance

The difference between the actual and budgeted selling price for
a product, multiplied by the actual number of units sold.

## Serial covariance

The covariance between a variable and the lagged value of the variable; the same as
autocovariance.

See Zero curve.

## Steepening of the yield curve

A change in the yield curve where the spread between the yield on a long-term
and short-term Treasury has increased. Compare flattening of the yield curve and butterfly shift.

## total overhead variance

the difference between total actual overhead and total applied overhead; it is the amount of underapplied or overapplied overhead

## total variance

the difference between total actual cost incurred
and total standard cost for the output produced during
the period

## variable overhead efficiency variance

the difference between budgeted variable overhead based on actual input activity and variable overhead applied to production

## variable overhead spending variance

the difference between total actual variable overhead and the budgeted amount of variable overhead based on actual input activity

## Variance

A measure of dispersion of a set of data points around their mean value. The mathematical
expectation of the squared deviations from the mean. The square root of the variance is the standard deviation.

## Variance

The weighted average of the squared deviations from the
expected value

## variance

a difference between an actual and a standard or
budgeted cost; it is favorable if actual is less than standard
and is unfavorable if actual is greater than standard

## Variance

The dispersion of a variable. The square of the standard deviation.

## variance

Average value of squared deviations from mean. A measure of volatility.

## Variance analysis

A method of budgetary control that compares actual performance against plan, investigates the causes of the variance and takes corrective action to ensure that targets are achieved.

## variance analysis

the process of categorizing the nature (favorable or unfavorable) of the differences between standard and actual costs and determining the reasons for those differences

## Variance minimization approach to tracking

An approach to bond indexing that uses historical data to
estimate the variance of the tracking error.

## Variance rule

Specifies the permitted minimum or maximum quantity of securities that can be delivered to
satisfy a TBA trade. For Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae, and Feddie Mac pass-through securities, the accepted
variance is plus or minus 2.499999 percent per million of the par value of the TBA quantity.

## volume variance

a fixed overhead variance that represents
the difference between budgeted fixed overhead and fixed
overhead applied to production of the period; is also referred
to as the noncontrollable variance

## Weighted average portfolio yield

The weighted average of the yield of all the bonds in a portfolio.

## Yield

The percentage rate of return paid on a stock in the form of dividends, or the effective rate of interest
paid on a bond or note.

## yield

the quantity of output that results from a specified input

## Yield

a. Measure of return on an investment, stated as a percentage of price.
yield can be computed by dividing return by purchase price, current market
value, or other measure of value.
b. Income from a bond expressed as an
annualized percentage rate.
c. The nominal annual interest rate that gives a
future value of the purchase price equal to the redemption value of the security.
Any coupon payments determine part of that yield.

## Yield

The interest rate that makes the present value of a stream of future payments associated with an asset equal to the current price of that asset. Also called yield to maturity. See also current yield.

## Yield curve

The graphical depiction of the relationship between the yield on bonds of the same credit quality
but different maturities. Related: Term structure of interest rates. Harvey (1991) finds that the inversions of
the yield curve (short-term rates greater than long term rates) have preceded the last five U.S. recessions. The
yield curve can accurately forecast the turning points of the business cycle.

## Yield Curve

A graphical representation of the level of interest rates for
securities of differing maturities at a specific point of time

## Yield curve

Graph of yields (vertical axis) of a particular type of security
versus the time to maturity (horizontal axis). This curve usually slopes
upward, indicating that investors usually expect to receive a premium for
securities that have a longer time to maturity. The benchmark yield curve is
for U.S. Treasury securities with maturities ranging from three months to 30
years. See Term structure.

## yield curve

Graph of the relationship between time to maturity and yield to maturity.

## Yield curve

A graph showing how the yield on bonds varies with time to maturity.

## Yield curve option-pricing models

Models that can incorporate different volatility assumptions along the
yield curve, such as the Black-Derman-Toy model. Also called arbitrage-free option-pricing models.

## Yield curve strategies

Positioning a portfolio to capitalize on expected changes in the shape of the Treasury yield curve.

## Yield ratio

The quotient of two bond yields.

## yield ratio

the expected or actual relationship between input and output

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