Financial Terms Funds From Operations (FFO)

# Definition of Funds From Operations (FFO)

## Funds From Operations (FFO)

Used by real estate and other investment trusts to define the cash flow from
trust operations. It is earnings with depreciation and amortization added back. A similar term increasingly
used is funds Available for Distribution (FAD), which is ffo less capital investments in trust property and
the amortization of mortgages.

# Related Terms:

## Best-efforts sale

A method of securities distribution/ underwriting in which the securities firm agrees to sell
as much of the offering as possible and return any unsold shares to the issuer. As opposed to a guaranteed or
fixed price sale, where the underwriter agrees to sell a specific number of shares (with the securities firm
holding any unsold shares in its own account if necessary).

## Beta (Mutual Funds)

The measure of a fund's or stocks risk in relation to the market. A beta of 0.7 means
the fund's total return is likely to move up or down 70% of the market change; 1.3 means total return is likely
to move up or down 30% more than the market. Beta is referred to as an index of the systematic risk due to
general market conditions that cannot be diversified away.

## Beta equation (Mutual Funds)

The beta of a fund is determined as follows:
[(n) (sum of (xy)) ]-[ (sum of x) (sum of y)]
[(n) (sum of (xx)) ]-[ (sum of x) (sum of x)]
where: n = # of observations (36 months)
x = rate of return for the S&P 500 Index
y = rate of return for the fund

## Cash flow from operations

A firm's net cash inflow resulting directly from its regular operations
(disregarding extraordinary items such as the sale of fixed assets or transaction costs associated with issuing
securities), calculated as the sum of net income plus non-cash expenses that were deducted in calculating net
income.

## Cost of funds

Interest rate associated with borrowing money.

## Dividend yield (Funds)

Indicated yield represents return on a share of a mutual fund held over the past 12
months. Assumes fund was purchased 1 year ago. Reflects effect of sales charges (at current rates), but not
redemption charges.

## Endowment funds

Investment funds established for the support of institutions such as colleges, private
schools, museums, hospitals, and foundations. The investment income may be used for the operation of the
institution and for capital expenditures.

## Federal funds

Non-interest bearing deposits held in reserve for depository institutions at their district Federal
Reserve Bank. Also, excess reserves lent by banks to each other.

## Federal funds market

The market where banks can borrow or lend reserves, allowing banks temporarily
short of their required reserves to borrow reserves from banks that have excess reserves.

## Federal funds rate

This is the interest rate that banks with excess reserves at a Federal Reserve district bank
charge other banks that need overnight loans. The Fed funds rate, as it is called, often points to the direction
of U.S. interest rates.

## Forward Fed funds

Fed funds traded for future delivery.

## Income statement (statement of operations)

A statement showing the revenues, expenses, and income (the
difference between revenues and expenses) of a corporation over some period of time.

## Surplus funds

Cash flow available after payment of taxes in the project.

## Term Fed Funds

Fed funds sold for a period of time longer than overnight.

## 12b-1 funds

Mutual funds that do not charge an upfront or back-end commission, but instead take out up to
1.25% of average daily fund assets each year to cover the costs of selling and marketing shares, an
arrangement allowed by the SEC's Rule 12b-I (passed in 1980).

## CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATIONS

A section on the cash-flow Stockholdersâ€™ equity statement that shows how much cash came into a company and how much went out during the normal course of business.

## Shareholdersâ€™ funds

The capital invested in a business by the shareholders, including retained profits.

## operations flow document

a document listing all operations
necessary to produce one unit of product (or perform
a specific service) and the corresponding time allowed
for each operation

## internally generated funds

Cash reinvested in the firm; depreciation plus earnings not paid out as dividends.

## Federal Funds Rate

The interest rate at which banks lend deposits at the Federal Reserve to one another overnight.

## Open-Market Operations

Buying or selling of bonds by the central bank.

## Adjusted Cash Flow Provided by Continuing Operations

Cash flow provided by operating
activities adjusted to provide a more recurring, sustainable measure. Adjustments to reported cash
provided by operating activities are made to remove such nonrecurring cash items as: the operating
component of discontinued operations, income taxes on items classified as investing or financing activities, income tax benefits from nonqualified employee stock options, the cash effects of purchases and sales of trading securities for nonfinancial firms, capitalized expenditures, and other nonrecurring cash inflows and outflows.

## Discontinued Operations

Net income and the gain or loss on disposal of a business segment whose assets and operations are clearly distinguishable from the other assets and operations of an entity.

## Income from Continuing Operations

After-tax net income before discontinued operations,
extraordinary items, and the cumulative effect of changes in accounting principle.

## Net Cash after Operations

Cash flow available for debt serviceâ€”the payment of interest and principal on loans. Generally calculated as cash provided by operating activities before interest
expense.

## Successful Efforts Method

A method of accounting for petroleum exploration and development
expenditures that permits capitalization of expenditures only on successful projects.

Venture capital corporations established by labour unions. They function as other venture capital corporations but are subject to government regulation.

## EFT (electronic funds transfer)

funds which are electronically credited to your account (e.g. direct deposit), or electronically debited from your account on an ongoing basis (e.g. a pre-authorized monthly bill payment, or a monthly loan or mortgage payment). A wire transfer is a form of EFT.

## growth funds

Mutual funds that seek long-term capital growth. This type of fund invests primarily in equity securities.

## income funds

Mutual funds that seek regular income. This type of fund invests primarily in government, corporate and other types of bonds, debt securities, and other income producing securities and in certain circumstances can also hold common and preferred shares.

## index funds

Mutual funds that aim to track the performance of a specific stock or bond index. This process is also referred to as indexing and passive management.

## NSF (non-sufficient funds)

This appears on your statement if there are insufficient funds in your account to cover a cheque that you have written or a pre-authorized payment that you have already arranged. You will be charged a service fee for non-sufficient funds.

## savings funds

Mutual funds that seek to preserve capital. This type of fund invests primarily in short-term securities with an average term to maturity of one year or less, or in the case of money market funds, 90 days or less.