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Definition of Front End Fees

Front End Fees Image 1

Front End Fees

fees paid when for example a financial instrument such as a loan is arranged.



Related Terms:

12B-1 fees

The percent of a mutual fund's assets used to defray marketing and distribution expenses. The
amount of the fee is stated in the fund's prospectus. The SEC has recently proposed that 12B-1 fees in excess
of 0.25% be classed as a load. A true " no load" fund has neither a sales charge nor 12b-1 fee.


Aggregate Expenditure Curve

Aggregate demand for goods and services drawn as a function of the level of national income.


Autonomous Expenditure

Elements of spending that do not vary systematically with variables such as GDP that are explained by the theory. See also exogenous expenditure.


Blend off

The reintroduction of a faulty product into a process production flow by
adding it back in small increments.
1Copied with permission from Appendix B of Bragg, Inventory Best Practices, John Wiley
& Sons, 2004.


Calendar

List of new issues scheduled to come to market shortly.



Calendar effect

The tendency of stocks to perform differently at different times, including such anomalies as
the January effect, month-of-the-year effect, day-of-the-week effect, and holiday effect.


Capital expenditures

Amount used during a particular period to acquire or improve long-term assets such as
property, plant or equipment.


Front End Fees Image 2

capital expenditures

Refers to investments by a business in long-term
operating assets, including land and buildings, heavy machinery and
equipment, vehicles, tools, and other economic resources used in the
operations of a business. The term capital is used to emphasize that
these are relatively large amounts and that a business has to raise capital
for these expenditures from debt and equity sources.


Capitalized Cost An expenditure or accrual that is reported as an asset to be amortized against

future-period revenue.


Capitalized Expenditures

Expenditures that are accounted for as assets to be amortized
against income in future periods as opposed to current-period expenses.


Cash dividend

A dividend paid in cash to a company's shareholders. The amount is normally based on
profitability and is taxable as income. A cash distribution may include capital gains and return of capital in
addition to the dividend.


cash dividend

Payment of cash by the firm to its shareholders.


Cash-surrender value

An amount the insurance company will pay if the policyholder ends a whole life
insurance policy.


Cash Surrender Value

This is the amount available to the owner of a life insurance policy upon voluntary termination of the policy before it becomes payable by the death of the life insured. This does not apply to term insurance but only to those policies which have reduced paid up values and cash surrender values. A cash surrender in lieu of death benefit usually has tax implications.


Cash Surrender Value

Benefit that entitles a policy owner to an amount of money upon cancellation of a policy.


Closed-end fund

An investment company that sells shares like any other corporation and usually does not
redeem its shares. A publicly traded fund sold on stock exchanges or over the counter that may trade above or
below its net asset value. Related: Open-end fund.


Front End Fees Image 3

Closed-end mortgage

Mortgage against which no additional debt may be issued.


confrontation strategy

an organizational strategy in which company management decides to confront, rather than avoid, competition; an organizational strategy in which company management still attempts to differentiate company
products through new features or to develop a price
leadership position by dropping prices, even though management
recognizes that competitors will rapidly bring out
similar products and match price changes; an organizational
strategy in which company management identifies
and exploits current opportunities for competitive advantage
in recognition of the fact that those opportunities will
soon be eliminated



constant-growth dividend discount model

Version of the dividend discount model in which dividends grow at a constant rate.


contract vendor

an external party that has been granted an
outsourcing contract to provide a service activity for an entity


Cum dividend

With dividend.


Cumulative dividend feature

A requirement that any missed preferred or preference stock dividends be paid
in full before any common dividend payment is made.


Custodial fees Fees

charged by an institution that holds securities in safekeeping for an investor.


Dependent

Acceptance of a capital budgeting project contingent on the acceptance of another project.


dependent variable

an unknown variable that is to be predicted
using one or more independent variables


Detrend

To remove the general drift, tendency or bent of a set of statistical data as related to time.


Discounted dividend model (DDM)

A formula to estimate the intrinsic value of a firm by figuring the
present value of all expected future dividends.


Front End Fees Image 4

Dividend

A dividend is a portion of a company's profit paid to common and preferred shareholders. A stock
selling for $20 a share with an annual dividend of $1 a share yields the investor 5%.



Dividend

A payment a company makes to stockholders. Earnings before income tax. The profit a company made
before income taxes.


Dividend

The payment of after-tax profits to shareholders as their share of the profits of the business for an accounting period.


Dividend

A payment made to shareholders that is proportional to the number of shares
owned. It is authorized by the Board of Directors.


dividend

Periodic cash distribution from the firm to its shareholders.


Dividend

As the term dividend relates to a corporation's earnings, a dividend is an amount paid per share from a corporation's after tax profits. Depending on the type of share, it may or may not have the right to earn any dividends and corporations may reduce or even suspend dividend payments if they are not doing well. Some dividends are paid in the form of additional shares of the corporation. Dividends paid by Canadian corporations qualify for the dividend tax credit and are taxed at lower rates than other income.
As the term dividend relates to a life insurance policy, it means that if that policy is "participating", the policy owner is entitled to participate in an equitable distribution of the surplus earnings of the insurance company which issued the policy. Surpluses arise primarily from three sources:
1) the difference between anticipated and actual operating expenses,
2) the difference between anticipated and actual claims experience, and
3) interest earned on investments over and above the rate required to maintain policy reserves. Having regard to the source of the surplus, the "dividend" so paid can be considered, in part at least, as a refund of part of the premium paid by the policy owner.
Life insurance policy owners of participating policies usually have four and sometimes five dividend options from which to choose:
1) take the dividend in cash,
2) apply the dividend to reduce current premiums,
3) leave the dividends on deposit with the insurance company to accumulate at interest like a savings plan,
4) use the dividends to purchase paid-up whole life insurance to mature at the same time as the original policy,
5) use the dividends to purchase one year term insurance equal to the guaranteed cash value at the end of the policy year, with any portion of the dividend not required for this purpose being applied under one of the other dividend options.
NOTE: It is suggested here that if you have a participating whole life policy and at the time of purchase received a "dividend projection" of incredible future savings, ask for a current projection. Life insurance company's surpluses are not what they used to be.


Dividend

Unlike dividends which are paid to company shareholders, participating insurance policy dividends are not based on the company's overall profits. Rather, they are determined by grouping policies by type and country of issue and looking at how each class contributes to the company's earnings and surplus.


Dividend clawback

With respect to a project financing, an arrangement under which the sponsors of a project
agree to contribute as equity any prior dividends received from the project to the extent necessary to cover
any cash deficiencies.


Dividend clientele

A group of shareholders who prefer that the firm follow a particular dividend policy. For
example, such a preference is often based on comparable tax situations.


dividend discount model

Computation of today’s stock price which states that share value equals the present value of all expected future dividends.


Dividend discount model (DDM)

A model for valuing the common stock of a company, based on the
present value of the expected cash flows.


dividend growth method

a method of computing the cost
of common stock equity that indicates the rate of return
that common shareholders expect to earn in the form of
dividends on a company’s common stock


Dividend growth model

A model wherein dividends are assumed to be at a constant rate in perpetuity.


Dividend income

Income that a company receives in the form of dividends on stock in other companies that it holds.


Dividend limitation

A bond covenant that restricts in some way the firm's ability to pay cash dividends.


Dividend payout ratio

Percentage of earnings paid out as dividends.


dividend payout ratio

Computed by dividing cash dividends for the year
by the net income for the year. It’s simply the percent of net income distributed
as cash dividends for the year.


dividend payout ratio

Percentage of earnings paid out as dividends.


Dividend policy

An established guide for the firm to determine the amount of money it will pay as dividends.


Dividend Policy

This policy governs Canada Life's actions regarding distribution of dividends to policyholders. It's goal is to achieve a dividend distribution that is equitable and timely, and which gives full recognition of the need to ensure the ongoing solidity of the company. It also specifies that distribution to individual policyholders must be equitable between dividend classes and policyholder generations, and among policyholders within any class.


Dividend rate

The fixed or floating rate paid on preferred stock based on par value.


Dividend reinvestment plan (DRP)

Automatic reinvestment of shareholder dividends in more shares of a
company's stock, often without commissions. Some plans provide for the purchase of additional shares at a
discount to market price. Dividend reinvestment plans allow shareholders to accumulate stock over the Long
term using dollar cost averaging. The DRP is usually administered by the company without charges to the
holder.


Dividend rights

A shareholders' rights to receive per-share dividends identical to those other shareholders receive.


Dividend yield (Funds)

Indicated yield represents return on a share of a mutual fund held over the past 12
months. Assumes fund was purchased 1 year ago. Reflects effect of sales charges (at current rates), but not
redemption charges.


dividend yield ratio

Cash dividends paid by a business over the most
recent 12 months (called the trailing 12 months) divided by the current
market price per share of the stock. This ratio is reported in the daily
stock trading tables in the Wall Street Journal and other major newspapers.


Dividend yield (Stocks)

Indicated yield represents annual dividends divided by current stock price.


Dividends

Amounts paid to the owners of a company that represent a share of the income of the company.


Dividends

Profits paid out to shareholders by a corporation.


Dividends per share

Amount of cash paid to shareholders expressed as dollars per share.


Dividends per share

Dividends paid for the past 12 months divided by the number of common shares
outstanding, as reported by a company. The number of shares often is determined by a weighted average of
shares outstanding over the reporting term.


Economic dependence

Exists when the costs and/or revenues of one project depend on those of another.


Efficient frontier

The combinations of securities portfolios that maximize expected return for any level of
expected risk, or that minimizes expected risk for any level of expected return.


Efficient frontier

A graph representing a set of portfolios that maximizes
expected return at each level of portfolio risk. See Markowitz model.


End-of-year convention

Treating cash flows as if they occur at the end of a year as opposed to the date
convention. Under the end-of-year convention, the present is time 0, the end of year 1 occurs one year hence,
etc.


Ending inventory

The dollar value or unit total of goods on hand at the end of an
accounting period.


Endogenous

Determined from within the system. Opposite of exogenous.


Endogenous variable

A value determined within the context of a model.


Endowment

Life insurance payable to the policyholder, if living on the maturity date stated in the policy, or to a beneficiary if the insured dies before that date. For example, some Term to age 100 policies offer the option of taking the face amount of the policy as a cash payout at age 100 if the policyholder is still alive and paying all required income taxes on the amount received or leaving the policy to pay out upon death whereupon the payout is tax free.


Endowment funds

Investment funds established for the support of institutions such as colleges, private
schools, museums, hospitals, and foundations. The investment income may be used for the operation of the
institution and for capital expenditures.


Ex-dividend

This literally means "without dividend." The buyer of shares when they are quoted ex-dividend
is not entitled to receive a declared dividend.


Ex-dividend date

The first day of trading when the seller, rather than the buyer, of a stock will be entitled to
the most recently announced dividend payment. This date set by the NYSE (and generally followed on other
US exchanges) is currently two business days before the record date. A stock that has gone ex-dividend is
marked with an x in newspaper listings on that date.


ex-dividend date

Date that determines whether a stockholder is entitled to a dividend payment; anyone holding stock before this date is entitled to a dividend.


Exclusionary self-tender

The firm makes a tender offer for a given amount of its own stock while excluding
targeted stockholders.


Exogenous Expenditure

See autonomous expenditure.


Expenditure

A payment or the incurrence of a liability by an entity.


Extendable bond

Bond whose maturity can be extended at the option of the lender or issuer.


Extendable notes

Note the maturity of which can be extended by mutual agreement of the issuer and
investors.


Extended Amortization Period

An amortization period that continues beyond a long-lived asset's economic useful life.


Extended Amortization Periods

Amortizing capitalized expenditures over estimated useful lives that are unduly optimistic.


Extra or special dividends

A dividend that is paid in addition to a firm's "regular" quarterly dividend.


Financial Trend Analysis

Process of analyzing financial statements of a company for any continuing relationship.


fixed overhead spending variance

the difference between the total actual fixed overhead and budgeted fixed overhead;
it is computed as part of the four-variance overhead analysis


Fixed-price tender offer

A one-time offer to purchase a stated number of shares at a stated fixed price,
usually a premium to the current market price.


Flexible Spending Account

A form of cafeteria plan allowing employees to pay
for some medical or dependent care expenses with pretax pay deductions.


Front fee

The fee initially paid by the buyer upon entering a split-fee option contract.


Homemade dividend

Sale of some shares of stock to get cash that would be similar to receiving a cash dividend.


Independent Broker

This is a provincial government licensed independent businessperson who usually represents five or more life insurance companies in a sales and service capacity and who is paid a commission by those life insurance companies for sales and service of life insurance products. We for example, have been in business for 12 years and regularly place new business with over twenty different life insurance companies.


Independent project

A project whose acceptance or rejection is independent of the acceptance or rejection of
other projects.


independent project

an investment project that has no specific
bearing on any other investment project


Independent Projects

A situation where an increase (or decrease) in the benefits of one
project has no effect on the benefits of another project. Also, a
situation where the acceptance of one project does not preclude
the acceptance of another project.


independent variable

a variable that, when changed, will
cause consistent, observable changes in another variable;
a variable used as the basis of predicting the value of a
dependent variable


Indicated dividend

Total amount of dividends that would be paid on a share of stock over the next 12 months
if each dividend were the same amount as the most recent dividend. Usually represent by the letter "e" in
stock tables.


information content of dividends

Dividend increases send good news about cash flow and earnings. Dividend cuts send bad news.


Investment Spending

Expenditures on capital goods including new housing. Financial ''investments" and sales of existing assets are not included.


Lend

To provide money temporarily on the condition that it or its equivalent will be returned, often with an
interest fee.


Lender (Credit Insurance)

Individual or firm that extends money to a borrower with the expectation of being repaid, usually with interest. Lenders create debt in the form of loans. Lenders include financial institutions, leasing companies government lending agencies and automobile dealers.


Lending Policy

A course of action adopted by a financial institution to guide and usually determine present and future decisions in the light of given conditions.


Liquidating dividend

Payment by a firm to its owners from capital rather than from earnings.


Markowitz efficient frontier

The graphical depiction of the Markowitz efficient set of portfolios
representing the boundary of the set of feasible portfolios that have the maximum return for a given level of
risk. Any portfolios above the frontier cannot be achieved. Any below the frontier are dominated by
Markowitz efficient portfolios.


Minimum-variance frontier

Graph of the lowest possible portfolio variance that is attainable for a given
portfolio expected return.


MM dividend-irrelevance proposition

Theory that under ideal conditions, the value of the firm is unaffected by dividend policy.


Open-end fund

Also called a mutual fund, an investment company that stands ready to sell new shares to the
public and to redeem its outstanding shares on demand at a price equal to an appropriate share of the value of
its portfolio, which is computed daily at the close of the market.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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