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Foreign currency translation

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Definition of Foreign currency translation

Foreign Currency Translation Image 1

Foreign currency translation

The process of restating foreign currency accounts of subsidiaries into the
reporting currency of the parent company in order to prepare consolidated financial statements.



Related Terms:

Asian currency units (ACUs)

Dollar deposits held in Singapore or other Asian centers.


Blocked currency

A currency that is not freely convertible to other currencies due to exchange controls.


Controlled foreign corporation (CFC)

A foreign corporation whose voting stock is more than 50% owned
by U.S. stockholders, each of whom owns at least 10% of the voting power.


Cumulative Translation Adjustment (CTA) account

An entry in a translated balance sheet in which gains
and/or losses from translation have been accumulated over a period of years. The CTA account is required
under the FASB No. 52 rule.


Currency

Money.



Currency arbitrage

Taking advantage of divergences in exchange rates in different money markets by
buying a currency in one market and selling it in another market.


Currency basket

The value of a portfolio of specific amounts of individual currencies, used as the basis for
setting the market value of another currency. It is also referred to as a currency cocktail.


Foreign Currency Translation Image 2

Currency future

A financial future contract for the delivery of a specified foreign currency.


Currency option

An option to buy or sell a foreign currency.


Currency risk

Related: Exchange rate risk


Currency risk sharing

An agreement by the parties to a transaction to share the currency risk associated with
the transaction. The arrangement involves a customized hedge contract embedded in the underlying
transaction.


Currency selection

Asset allocation in which the investor chooses among investments denominated in
different currencies.


Currency swap

An agreement to swap a series of specified payment obligations denominated in one currency
for a series of specified payment obligations denominated in a different currency.


Devaluation A decrease in the spot price of the currency



Dual-currency issues

Eurobonds that pay coupon interest in one currency but pay the principal in a different
currency.


Eurocurrency deposit

A short-term fixed rate time deposit denominated in a currency other than the local
currency (i.e. US$ deposited in a London bank).


Foreign Currency Translation Image 3

Eurocurrency market

The money market for borrowing and lending currencies that are held in the form of
deposits in banks located outside the countries of the currencies issued as legal tender.


European Currency Unit (ECU)

An index of foreign exchange consisting of about 10 European currencies,
originally devised in 1979.



Foreign banking market

That portion of domestic bank loans supplied to foreigners for use abroad.


Foreign bond

A bond issued on the domestic capital market of anther company.


Foreign bond market

That portion of the domestic bond market that represents issues floated by foreign
companies to governments.


Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA)

a law passed by U.S. Congress in 1977 that makes it illegal for a U.S. company to engage in various “questionable” foreign payments and
makes it mandatory for a U.S. company to maintain accurate
accounting records and a reasonable system of internal
control


Foreign currency

foreign money.


Foreign currency option

An option that conveys the right to buy or sell a specified amount of foreign
currency at a specified price within a specified time period.


Foreign direct investment (FDI)

The acquisition abroad of physical assets such as plant and equipment, with
operating control residing in the parent corporation.


Foreign equity market

That portion of the domestic equity market that represents issues floated by foreign companies.


Foreign exchange

currency from another country.


Foreign Currency Translation Image 4

Foreign Exchange

The currency of a foreign country.



Foreign exchange controls

Various forms of controls imposed by a government on the purchase/sale of
foreign currencies by residents or on the purchase/sale of local currency by nonresidents.


Foreign exchange dealer

A firm or individual that buys foreign exchange from one party and then sells it to
another party. The dealer makes the difference between the buying and selling prices, or spread.


Foreign Exchange Market

A worldwide market in which one country's currency is bought or sold in exchange for another country's currency.


Foreign Exchange Reserves

A fund containing the central bank's holdings of foreign currency or claims thereon.


Foreign exchange risk

The risk that a long or short position in a foreign currency might have to be closed out
at a loss due to an adverse movement in the currency rates.


Foreign exchange swap

An agreement to exchange stipulated amounts of one currency for another currency
at one or more future dates.


Foreign market

Part of a nation's internal market, representing the mechanisms for issuing and trading
securities of entities domiciled outside that nation. Compare external market and domestic market.


Foreign market beta

A measure of foreign market risk that is derived from the capital asset pricing model.


Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC)

A special type of corporation created by the Tax Reform Act of 1984 that
is designed to provide a tax incentive for exporting U.S.-produced goods.


Foreign tax credit

Home country credit against domestic income tax for foreign taxes paid on foreign
derived earnings.


Hard currency

A freely convertible currency that is not expected to depreciate in value in the foreseeable future.


Multicurrency clause

Such a clause on a Euro loan permits the borrower to switch from one currency to
another currency on a rollover date.


Multicurrency loans

Give the borrower the possibility of drawing a loan in different currencies.


Reporting currency

The currency in which the parent firm prepares its own financial statements; that is, U.S.
dollars for a U.S. company.


Reserve currency

A foreign currency held by a central bank or monetary authority for the purposes of
exchange intervention and the settlement of inter-governmental claims.


Reserve Currency

A currency, frequently the U.S. dollar, that is used by other countries to denominate the assets they hold as international reserves.


Soft currency

A currency that is expected to drop in value relative to other currencies.


Translation exposure

Risk of adverse effects on a firm's financial statements that may arise from changes in exchange rates.
Related: transaction exposure.


Virtual currency option

A new option contract introduced by the PHLX in 1994 that is settled in US$ rather
than in the underlying currency. These options are also called 3-Ds (dollar denominated delivery).


Current maturity

Current time to maturity on an outstanding debt instrument.
Current / noncurrent method
Under this currency translation method, all of a foreign subsidiary's current
assets and liabilities are translated into home currency at the current exchange rate while noncurrent assets
and liabilities are translated at the historical exchange rate, that is, the rate in effect at the time the asset was
acquired or the liability incurred.


Current rate method

Under this currency translation method, all foreign currency balance-sheet and income
statement items are translated at the current exchange rate.


FASB No. 52

The U.S. accounting standard which was replaced by FASB No. 8. U.S. companies are required
to translate foreign accounts by the current rate and report the changes from currency fluctuations in a
cumulative translation adjustment account in the equity section of the balance sheet.


Transaction exposure

Risk to a firm with known future cash flows in a foreign currency that arises from
possible changes in the exchange rate. Related:translation exposure.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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