Financial Terms
European Currency Unit (ECU)

Main Page

Alphabetical
Index

SEARCH


Information about financial, finance, business, accounting, payroll, inventory, investment, money, inventory control, stock trading, financial advisor, tax advisor, credit.

 


Main Page: investment, business, stock trading, financial, credit, payroll, finance, inventory control,

 

Also see related: home financing, home buyer, homebuyer, homes, credit, mortgage, home, property, condo,

Definition of European Currency Unit (ECU)

European Currency Unit (ECU) Image 1

European Currency Unit (ECU)

An index of foreign exchange consisting of about 10 european currencies,
originally devised in 1979.



Related Terms:

Asian currency units (ACUs)

Dollar deposits held in Singapore or other Asian centers.


Asset-Backed Securities

Bond or note secured by assets of company.


Asset-backed security

A security that is collateralized by loans, leases, receivables, or installment contracts
on personal property, not real estate.


Available-for-Sale Security

A debt or equity security not classified as a held-to-maturity security or a trading security. Can be classified as a current or noncurrent investment depending on the intended holding period.


Blocked currency

A currency that is not freely convertible to other currencies due to exchange controls.



Book-entry securities

The Treasury and federal agencies are moving to a book-entry system in which securities are not represented by engraved pieces of paper but are maintained in computerized records at the
Fed in the names of member banks, which in turn keep records of the securities they own as well as those they
are holding for customers. In the case of other securities where a book-entry has developed, engraved
securities do exist somewhere in quite a few cases. These securities do not move from holder to holder but are
usually kept in a central clearinghouse or by another agent.


Convertible security

A security that can be converted into common stock at the option of the security holder,
including convertible bonds and convertible preferred stock.


European Currency Unit (ECU) Image 2

Currency

Money.


Currency arbitrage

Taking advantage of divergences in exchange rates in different money markets by
buying a currency in one market and selling it in another market.


Currency basket

The value of a portfolio of specific amounts of individual currencies, used as the basis for
setting the market value of another currency. It is also referred to as a currency cocktail.


Currency future

A financial future contract for the delivery of a specified foreign currency.


Currency option

An option to buy or sell a foreign currency.


Currency risk

Related: Exchange rate risk


Currency risk sharing

An agreement by the parties to a transaction to share the currency risk associated with
the transaction. The arrangement involves a customized hedge contract embedded in the underlying
transaction.


Currency selection

Asset allocation in which the investor chooses among investments denominated in
different currencies.


Currency swap

An agreement to swap a series of specified payment obligations denominated in one currency
for a series of specified payment obligations denominated in a different currency.


European Currency Unit (ECU) Image 3

Debt securities

IOUs created through loan-type transactions - commercial paper, bank CDs, bills, bonds, and
other instruments.


Debt Security

A security representing a debt relationship with an enterprise, including a government
security, municipal security, corporate bond, convertible debt issue, and commercial
paper.



defective unit

a unit that has been rejected at a control inspection
point for failure to meet appropriate standards of
quality or designated product specifications; can be economically
reworked and sold through normal distribution channels


Derivative security

A financial security, such as an option, or future, whose value is derived in part from the
value and characteristics of another security, the underlying security.


Devaluation A decrease in the spot price of the currency



Discount securities

Non-interest-bearing money market instruments that are issued at a discount and
redeemed at maturity for full face value, e.g. U.S. Treasury bills.


Doctrine of sovereign immunity

Doctrine that says a nation may not be tried in the courts of another country
without its consent.


Dual-currency issues

Eurobonds that pay coupon interest in one currency but pay the principal in a different
currency.


Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA)

A federal Act that sets minimum operational and funding standards for employee benefit
plans.


Equity Security

An ownership interest in an enterprise, including preferred and common stock.


equivalent units of production (EUP)

an approximation of the number of whole units of output that could have been
produced during a period from the actual effort expended
during that period; used in process costing systems to assign
costs to production


European Currency Unit (ECU) Image 4

Eurocurrency deposit

A short-term fixed rate time deposit denominated in a currency other than the local
currency (i.e. US$ deposited in a London bank).



Eurocurrency market

The money market for borrowing and lending currencies that are held in the form of
deposits in banks located outside the countries of the currencies issued as legal tender.


European Monetary System (EMS)

An exchange arrangement formed in 1979 that involves the currencies
of european Union member countries.


European option

Option that may be exercised only at the expiration date. Related: american option.


European option

An option that can be exercised only on its expiration date.
Contrast with American option.


European-style option

An option contract that can only be exercised on the expiration date.


European Union (EU)

An economic association of european countries founded by the Treaty of Rome in
1957 as a common market for six nations. It was known as the european Community before 1993 and is
comprised of 15 european countries. Its goals are a single market for goods and services without any
economic barriers and a common currency with one monetary authority. The EU was known as the european
Community until January 1, 1994.


European Union (EU)

an economic alliance originally created
in 1957 as the european Economic Community by
France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg
and later joined by the united Kingdom, Ireland,
Denmark, Spain, Portugal, and Greece; prior to the Maastricht
Treaty of 1993 was called the european Community;
has eliminated virtually all barriers to the flow of capital,
labor, goods, and services among member nations


Exchangeable Security

Security that grants the security holder the right to exchange the security for the
common stock of a firm other than the issuer of the security.


Execution

The process of completing an order to buy or sell securities. Once a trade is executed, it is reported
by a Confirmation Report; settlement (payment and transfer of ownership) occurs in the U.S. between 1
(mutual funds) and 5 (stocks) days after an order is executed. Settlement times for exchange listed stocks are
in the process of being reduced to three days in the U. S.


Execution costs

The difference between the execution price of a security and the price that would have
existed in the absence of a trade, which can be further divided into market impact costs and market timing
costs.


Exempt securities

Instruments exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933 or the
margin requirements of the SEC Act of 1934. Such securities include government bonds, agencies, munis,
commercial paper, and private placements.


Federal agency securities

Securities issued by corporations and agencies created by the U.S. government,
such as the Federal Home Loan Bank Board and Ginnie Mae.


Fixed-dollar security

A nonnegotiable debt security that can be redeemed at some fixed price or according to
some schedule of fixed values, e.g., bank deposits and government savings bonds.


Fixed-income security

A security that pays a specified cash flow over a
specific period. Bonds are typical fixed-income securities.


floating-rate security

Security paying dividends or interest that vary with short-term interest rates.


Foreign currency

Foreign money.


Foreign currency option

An option that conveys the right to buy or sell a specified amount of foreign
currency at a specified price within a specified time period.


Foreign currency translation

The process of restating foreign currency accounts of subsidiaries into the
reporting currency of the parent company in order to prepare consolidated financial statements.


Future investment opportunities

The options to identify additional, more valuable investment opportunities
in the future that result from a current opportunity or operation.


Government securities

Negotiable U.S. Treasury securities.


Growth opportunity

Opportunity to invest in profitable projects.


Hard currency

A freely convertible currency that is not expected to depreciate in value in the foreseeable future.


Held-to-Maturity Security

A debt security for which the investing entity has both the positive
intent and the ability to hold until maturity.


Host security

The security to which a warrant is attached.


Hybrid security

A convertible security whose optioned common stock is trading in a middle range, causing
the convertible security to trade with the characteristics of both a fixed-income security and a common stock
instrument.


Manufactured housing securities (MHSs)

Loans on manufactured homes - that is, factory-built or
prefabricated housing, including mobile homes.


Marketable security

An easily traded investment, such as treasury bills, which is
recorded as a current asset, since it is easily convertible into cash.


Monthly income preferred security (MIP)

Preferred stock issued by a subsidiary located in a tax haven.
The subsidiary relends the money to the parent.


Mortgage-backed securities

Securities backed by a pool of mortgage loans.


Mortgage-Backed Securities Clearing Corporation

A wholly owned subsidiary of the Midwest Stock
Exchange that operates a clearing service for the comparison, netting, and margining of agency-guaranteed
MBSs transacted for forward delivery.


Mortgage pass-through security

Also called a passthrough, a security created when one or more mortgage
holders form a collection (pool) of mortgages sells shares or participation certificates in the pool. The cash
flow from the collateral pool is "passed through" to the security holder as monthly payments of principal,
interest, and prepayments. This is the predominant type of MBS traded in the secondary market.


Multicurrency clause

Such a clause on a Euro loan permits the borrower to switch from one currency to
another currency on a rollover date.


Multicurrency loans

Give the borrower the possibility of drawing a loan in different currencies.


Net present value of growth opportunities

A model valuing a firm in which net present value of new
investment opportunities is explicitly examined.


Nonmarketable Security

A debt or equity security for which there is no posted price or bidand-
ask quotation available on a securities exchange or over-the-counter market.


Nonrecurring Items

Revenues or gains and expenses or losses that are not expected to recur
on a regular basis. This term is often used interchangeably with special items.


Opportunity cost

The lost opportunity of not doing something, which may be financial or non-financial, e.g. time.


opportunity cost

a potential benefit that is foregone because
one course of action is chosen over another


Opportunity cost

Lost revenue that would otherwise have been realized if a different
decision point had been selected.


opportunity cost

Benefit or cash flow forgone as a result of an action.


Opportunity Cost

The forgone value of an alternative not chosen, usually the most profitable alternative.


Opportunity cost of capital

Expected return that is foregone by investing in a project rather than in
comparable financial securities.


opportunity cost of capital

the highest rate of return that
could be earned by using capital for the most attractive alternative
project(s) available


opportunity cost of capital

Expected rate of return given up by investing in a project.


Opportunity costs

The difference in the performance of an actual investment and a desired investment
adjusted for fixed costs and execution costs. The performance differential is a consequence of not being able
to implement all desired trades. Most valuable alternative that is given up.


Opportunity set

The possible expected return and standard deviation pairs of all portfolios that can be
constructed from a given set of assets.


Pass-through securities

A pool of fixed-income securities backed by a package of assets (i.e. mortgages)
where the holder receives the principal and interest payments. Related: mortgage pass-through security


Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act

A federal Act requiring the reporting of new hires into a national database.


Portfolio opportunity set

The expected return/standard deviation pairs of all portfolios that can be
constructed from a given set of assets.


Present value of growth opportunities (NPV)

Net present value of investments the firm is expected to make
in the future.


present value of growth opportunities (PVGO)

Net present value of a firm’s future investments.


Primitive security

An instrument such as a stock or bond for which payments depend only on the financial
status of the issuer.


Project loan securities

Securities backed by a variety of FHA-insured loan types - primarily multi-family
apartment buildings, hospitals, and nursing homes.


Public Securities Administration (PSA)

The trade association for primary dealers in U.S. government
securities, including MBSs.


Recurring EBITDA

The standard EBITDA with the effects of nonrecurring items removed.
Comparable to adjusted EBITDA.


Reporting currency

The currency in which the parent firm prepares its own financial statements; that is, U.S.
dollars for a U.S. company.


Reserve currency

A foreign currency held by a central bank or monetary authority for the purposes of
exchange intervention and the settlement of inter-governmental claims.


Reserve Currency

A currency, frequently the U.S. dollar, that is used by other countries to denominate the assets they hold as international reserves.


Secured debt

Debt that, in the event of default, has first claim on specified assets.


secured debt

Debt that has first claim on specified collateral in the event of default.


secured loan or line of credit

A lump sum of funds (loan), or a revolving source of credit with a pre-established limit (line of credit), for which the customer must provide collateral.


Securities

A general term for stock, bonds, or other other financial assets.


Securities analysts

Related:financial analysts


Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

The federal agency that
oversees the issuance of and trading in securities of public businesses.
The SEC has broad powers and can suspend the trading in securities of a
business. The SEC also has primary jurisdiction in making accounting
and financial reporting rules, but over the years it has largely deferred to
the private sector for the development of generally accepted accounting
principles (GAAP).


Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

Federal agency responsible for regulation of securities markets in the united
States.


Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

A federal agency that administers securities legislation,
including the Securities Acts of 1933 and 1934. Public companies in the united States
must register their securities with the SEC and file with the agency quarterly and annual financial
reports.


Securities & Exchange Commission

The SEC is a federal agency that regulates the U.S.financial markets.


Securitization

The process of creating a passthrough, such as the mortgage pass-through security, by which
the pooled assets become standard securities backed by those assets. Also, refers to the replacement of
nonmarketable loans and/or cash flows provided by financial intermediaries with negotiable securities issued
in the public capital markets.


Securitization

The pooling and repackaging of similar items into marketable securities that can be sold to investors.


Security

Piece of paper that proves ownership of stocks, bonds and other investments.


Security

Either the collateral on a loan, or some type of equity ownership or debt, such
as a stock option or note payable.



 

 

 

 

 

 

Related to : financial, finance, business, accounting, payroll, inventory, investment, money, inventory control, stock trading, financial advisor, tax advisor, credit.


Copyright© 2019 www.finance-lib.com