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Balanced Scorecard

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Definition of Balanced Scorecard

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Balanced Scorecard

A system of non-financial performance measurement that links innovation, customer and process measures to financial performance.



Related Terms:

balanced scorecard (BSC)

an approach to performance
measurement that weighs performance measures from four
perspectives: financial performance, an internal business
perspective, a customer perspective, and an innovation and
learning perspective


Balanced-Budget Multiplier

The multiplier associated with a change in government spending financed by an equal change in taxes.


Balanced fund

An investment company that invests in stocks and bonds. The same as a balanced mutual fund.


Balanced mutual fund

This is a fund that buys common stock, preferred stock and bonds. The same as a
balanced fund.


Activity-based budgeting

A method of budgeting that develops budgets based on expected activities and cost drivers – see also activity-based costing.



activity-based budgeting (ABB)

planning approach applying activity drivers to estimate the levels and costs of activities necessary to provide the budgeted quantity and
quality of production


Budget

A detailed schedule of financial activity, such as an advertising budget, a sales budget, or a capital budget.


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Budget

A plan expressed in monetary terms covering a future period of time and based on a defined
level of activity.


budget

a financial plan for the future based on a single level
of activity; the quantitative expression of a company’s commitment
to planned activities and resource acquisition and use


Budget

A set of interlinked plans that quantitatively describe a company’s projected
future operations.


Budget cycle

The annual period over which budgets are prepared.


Budget deficit

The amount by which government spending exceeds government revenues.


Budget Deficit

The excess of government spending over tax receipts.


budget manual

a detailed set of documents that provides information
and guidelines about the budgetary process


budget slack

an intentional underestimation of revenues
and/or overestimation of expenses in a budgeting process
for the purpose of including deviations that are likely to
occur so that results will occur within budget limits


budget variance

the difference between total actual overhead
and budgeted overhead based on standard hours allowed
for the production achieved during the period; computed
as part of two-variance overhead analysis; also
referred to as the controllable variance


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Budgetary control

The process of ensuring that actual financial results are in line with targets – see variance
analysis.


budgeted cost

a planned expenditure



budgeting

the process of formalizing plans and committing
them to written, financial terms


Capital budget

A firm's set of planned capital expenditures.


capital budget

management’s plan for investments in longterm
property, plant, and equipment


capital budget

List of planned investment projects.


Capital budgeting

The process of choosing the firm's long-term capital assets.


capital budgeting

Refers generally to analysis procedures for ranking
investments, given a limited amount of total capital that has to be allocated
among the various capital investment opportunities of a business.
The term sometimes is used interchangeably with the analysis techniques
themselves, such as calculating present value, net present value,
and the internal rate of return of investments.


Capital Budgeting

The process of ranking and selecting investment alternatives and
capital expenditures


capital budgeting

a process of evaluating an entity’s proposed
long-range projects or courses of future activity for
the purpose of allocating limited resources to desirable
projects


Capital budgeting

The series of steps one follows when justifying the decision to purchase
an asset, usually including an analysis of costs and related benefits, which
should include a discounted cash flow analysis of the stream of all future cash flows
resulting from the purchase of the asset.


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capital budgeting decision

Decision as to which real assets the firm should acquire.



Cash budget

A forecasted summary of a firm's expected cash inflows and cash outflows as well as its
expected cash and loan balances.


Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA)

A federal Act
containing the requirements for offering insurance to departed employees.


continuous budgeting

a process in which there is a rolling
twelve-month budget; a new budget month (twelve months
into the future) is added as each current month expires


Equity multiplier

Total assets divided by total common stockholders' equity; the amount of total assets per
dollar of stockholders' equity.


financial budget

a plan that aggregates monetary details
from the operating budgets; includes the cash and capital
budgets of a company as well as the pro forma financial
statements


Flexible budget

A method of budgetary control that flexes, i.e. adjusts the original budget by applying standard
prices and costs per unit to the actual production volume.


flexible budget

a presentation of multiple budgets that
show costs according to their behavior at different levels
of activity


imposed budget

a budget developed by top management
with little or no input from operating personnel; operating personnel are then informed of the budget objectives and constraints


Incremental budget

A budget that takes the previous year as a base and adds (or deducts) a percentage to arrive at
the budget for the current year.


master budget

the comprehensive set of all budgetary schedules
and the pro forma financial statements of an organization


Money Multiplier

Change in the money supply per change in the money base.


Multiplier

Change in the equilibrium value of a variable of interest per change in a variable over which one has control. "The" multiplier is the change in equilibrium income per change in government spending.


operating budget

a budget expressed in both units and dollars


Oversubscribed issue

Investors are not able to buy all of the shares or bonds they want, so underwriters must
allocate the shares or bonds among investors. This occurs when a new issue is underpriced or in great demand
because of growth prospects.


Oversubscription privilege

In a rights issue, arrangement by which shareholders are given the right to apply
for any shares that are not taken up.


participatory budget

a budget that has been developed
through a process of joint decision making by top management
and operating personnel


Planning, programming and budgeting system (PPBS)

A method of budgeting in which budgets are allocated to projects or programmes rather than to responsibility centres.


Priority-based budget

A budget that allocates funds in line with strategies.


program budgeting

an approach to budgeting that relates
resource inputs to service outputs


rolling budget

see continuous budgeting


Rolling budgets

A method of budgeting in which as each month passes, an additional budget month is added such that there is always a 12-month budget.


Subscription price

Price that the existing shareholders are allowed to pay for a share of stock in a rights offering.


zero-base budgeting

a comprehensive budgeting process
that systematically considers the priorities and alternatives
for current and proposed activities in relation to organization
objectives; it requires the rejustification of ongoing activities


Zero-based budgeting

A method of budgeting that ignores historical budgetary allocations and identifies the costs that are necessary to implement agreed strategies.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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