Financial Terms Markowitz efficient portfolio

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# Definition of Markowitz efficient portfolio

## Markowitz efficient portfolio

Also called a mean-variance efficient portfolio, a portfolio that has the highest
expected return at a given level of risk.

# Related Terms:

## Markowitz efficient set of portfolios

The collection of all efficient portfolios, graphically referred to as the
markowitz efficient frontier.

## Markowitz efficient frontier

The graphical depiction of the markowitz efficient set of portfolios
representing the boundary of the set of feasible portfolios that have the maximum return for a given level of
risk. Any portfolios above the frontier cannot be achieved. Any below the frontier are dominated by
markowitz efficient portfolios.

## Mean-variance efficient portfolio

Related: markowitz efficient portfolio

## Active portfolio strategy

A strategy that uses available information and forecasting techniques to seek a
better performance than a portfolio that is simply diversified broadly. Related: passive portfolio strategy

## Beta coefficient

A measurement of the extent to which the returns on a given stock move with stock market.

## coefficient of correlation

a measure of dispersion that indicates the degree of relative association existing between two variables

## Coefficient of determination

A measure of the goodness of fit of the relationship between the dependent and
independent variables in a regression analysis; for instance, the percentage of variation in the return of an
asset explained by the market portfolio return.

## coefficient of determination

a measure of dispersion that
indicates the “goodness of fit” of the actual observations
to the least squares regression line; indicates what proportion
of the total variation in y is explained by the regression model

## coefficient of variation

a measure of risk used when the standard deviations for multiple projects are approximately
the same but the expected values are significantly different

## Complete portfolio

The entire portfolio, including risky and risk-free assets.

## Correlation coefficient

A standardized statistical measure of the dependence of two random variables,
defined as the covariance divided by the standard deviations of two variables.

## Correlation Coefficient

A measure of the tendency of two variables to change values
together

## Correlation coefficient

A statistic in which the covariance is scaled to a
value between minus one (perfect negative correlation) and plus one (perfect
positive correlation).

## Dedicating a portfolio

Related: cash flow matching.

## Efficient capital market

A market in which new information is very quickly reflected accurately in share
prices.

## efficient capital markets

Financial markets in which security prices rapidly reflect all relevant information about asset values.

## Efficient diversification

The organizing principle of modern portfolio theory, which maintains that any riskaverse
investor will search for the highest expected return for any level of portfolio risk.

## Efficient frontier

The combinations of securities portfolios that maximize expected return for any level of
expected risk, or that minimizes expected risk for any level of expected return.

## Efficient frontier

A graph representing a set of portfolios that maximizes
expected return at each level of portfolio risk. See markowitz model.

## Efficient Market Hypothesis

In general the hypothesis states that all relevant information is fully and
immediately reflected in a security's market price thereby assuming that an investor will obtain an equilibrium
rate of return. In other words, an investor should not expect to earn an abnormal return (above the market
return) through either technical analysis or fundamental analysis. Three forms of efficient market hypothesis
exist: weak form (stock prices reflect all information of past prices), semi-strong form (stock prices reflect all
publicly available information) and strong form (stock prices reflect all relevant information including insider
information).

## Efficient Markets Hypothesis

The hypothesis that securities are typically in equilibrium--that they are fairly priced in the sense that the price reflects all publicly available information on the security.

## Efficient portfolio

A portfolio that provides the greatest expected return for a given level of risk (i.e. standard
deviation), or equivalently, the lowest risk for a given expected return.
efficient set Graph representing a set of portfolios that maximize expected return at each level of portfolio
risk.

## Excess return on the market portfolio

The difference between the return on the market portfolio and the
riskless rate.

## Factor portfolio

A well-diversified portfolio constructed to have a beta of 1.0 on one factor and a beta of
zero on any other factors.

## Feasible portfolio

A portfolio that an investor can construct given the assets available.

## Feasible set of portfolios

The collection of all feasible portfolios.

## Hedged portfolio

A portfolio consisting of the long position in the stock and the short position in the call
option, so as to be riskless and produce a return that equals the risk-free interest rate.

## Index Portfolio Rebalancing Service (IPRS)

Index portfolio Rebalancing Service (IPRS) is a comprehensive investment service that can help increase potential returns while reducing volatility. Several portfolios are available, each with its own strategic balance of Index Funds. IPRS maintains your personal asset allocation by monitoring and rebalancing your portfolio semi-annually.

## Information Coefficient (IC)

The correlation between predicted and actual stock returns, sometimes used to
measure the value of a financial analyst. An IC of 1.0 indicates a perfect linear relationship between predicted
and actual returns, while an IC of 0.0 indicates no linear relationship.

## input-output coefficient

a number (prefaced as a multiplier
to an unknown variable) that indicates the rate at which each
decision variable uses up (or depletes) the scarce resource

## Internally efficient market

Operationally efficient market.

## Leveraged portfolio

A portfolio that includes risky assets purchased with funds borrowed.

## Leveraged portfolio

A portfolio that includes risky assets purchased with funds borrowed.

## Market portfolio

A portfolio consisting of all assets available to investors, with each asset held -in
proportion to its market value relative to the total market value of all assets.

## market portfolio

portfolio of all assets in the economy. In practice a broad stock market index, such as the Standard & Poor's Composite, is used to represent the market.

## Market Portfolio

The total of all investment opportunities available to the investor.

## Markowitz diversification

A strategy that seeks to combine assets a portfolio with returns that are less than
perfectly positively correlated, in an effort to lower portfolio risk (variance) without sacrificing return.
Related: naive diversification

## Markowitz model

A model for selecting an optimum investment portfolio,
devised by H. M. markowitz. It uses a discrete-time, continuous-outcome
approach for modeling investment problems, often called the mean-variance
paradigm. See efficient frontier.

## Minimum-variance portfolio

The portfolio of risky assets with lowest variance.
Minority interest An outside ownership interest in a subsidiary that is consolidated with the parent for
financial reporting purposes.

## Modern portfolio theory

Principles underlying the analysis and evaluation of rational portfolio choices
based on risk-return trade-offs and efficient diversification.

## Normal portfolio

A customized benchmark that includes all the securities from which a manager normally
chooses, weighted as the manager would weight them in a portfolio.

## Operationally efficient market

Also called an internally efficient market, one in which investors can obtain
transactions services that reflect the true costs associated with furnishing those services.

## Optimal portfolio

An efficient portfolio most preferred by an investor because its risk/reward characteristics
approximate the investor's utility function. A portfolio that maximizes an investor's preferences with respect
to return and risk.

## Passive portfolio

A market index portfolio.

## Passive portfolio strategy

A strategy that involves minimal expectational input, and instead relies on
diversification to match the performance of some market index. A passive strategy assumes that the
marketplace will reflect all available information in the price paid for securities, and therefore, does not
attempt to find mispriced securities. Related: active portfolio strategy

## Portfolio

A collection of investments, real and/or financial.

## Portfolio

A collection of securities and investments held by an investor

## Portfolio Diversification

See diversification

## Portfolio insurance

A strategy using a leveraged portfolio in the underlying stock to create a synthetic put
option. The strategy's goal is to ensure that the value of the portfolio does not fall below a certain level.

## Portfolio internal rate of return

The rate of return computed by first determining the cash flows for all the
bonds in the portfolio and then finding the interest rate that will make the present value of the cash flows
equal to the market value of the portfolio.

## Portfolio management

Related: Investment management

## Portfolio manager

Related: Investment manager

## Portfolio opportunity set

The expected return/standard deviation pairs of all portfolios that can be
constructed from a given set of assets.

## Portfolio separation theorem

An investor's choice of a risky investment portfolio is separate from his
attitude towards risk. Related:Fisher's separation theorem.

## Portfolio turnover rate

For an investment company, an annualized rate found by dividing the lesser of
purchases and sales by the average of portfolio assets.

## Portfolio variance

Weighted sum of the covariance and variances of the assets in a portfolio.

## Portfolio Weight

The percentage of a total portfolio represented by a single specific
security. It is calculated by dividing the value of the investment in a
specific security by the value of the investment in the total portfolio.

## Replicating portfolio

A portfolio constructed to match an index or benchmark.

## Structured portfolio strategy

A strategy in which a portfolio is designed to achieve the performance of some
predetermined liabilities that must be paid out in the future.

## Tilted portfolio

An indexing strategy that is linked to active management through the emphasis of a
particular industry sector, selected performance factors such as earnings momentum, dividend yield, priceearnings
ratio, or selected economic factors such as interest rates and inflation.

## Weighted average portfolio yield

The weighted average of the yield of all the bonds in a portfolio.

## Well diversified portfolio

A portfolio spread out over many securities in such a way that the weight in any
security is small. The risk of a well-diversified portfolio closely approximates the systemic risk of the overall
market, the unsystematic risk of each security having been diversified out of the portfolio.

## Zero-beta portfolio

A portfolio constructed to represent the risk-free asset, that is, having a beta of zero.

## Zero-investment portfolio

A portfolio of zero net value established by buying and shorting component
securities, usually in the context of an arbitrage strategy.

## Homogenous expectations assumption

An assumption of markowitz portfolio construction that investors
have the same expectations with respect to the inputs that are used to derive efficient portfolios: asset returns,
variances, and covariances.

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