Financial Terms Market-book ratio

# Definition of Market-book ratio

## Market-book ratio

market price of a share divided by book value per share.

# Related Terms:

## Market to Book Ratio

Measure of the book value of a company on a per share basis. It is
calculated by dividing the book value of the company by the
number of common shares outstanding.

## "Soft" Capital Rationing

Capital rationing that under certain circumstances can be violated or even viewed
as made up of targets rather than absolute constraints.

## Acceleration Clause

Clause causing repayment of a debt, if specified events occur or are not met.

## Accelerationist Hypothesis

Belief that an effort to keep unemployment below its natural rate results in an accelerating inflation.

## accounts receivable turnover ratio

A ratio computed by dividing annual
sales revenue by the year-end balance of accounts receivable. Technically
speaking, to calculate this ratio the amount of annual credit sales should
be divided by the average accounts receivable balance, but this information
is not readily available from external financial statements. For
reporting internally to managers, this ratio should be refined and finetuned
to be as accurate as possible.

## Acid-test ratio

Also called the quick ratio, the ratio of current assets minus inventories, accruals, and prepaid
items to current liabilities.

## ACID-TEST RATIO

A ratio that shows how well a company could pay its current debts using only its most liquid or “quick” assets. It’s a more pessimistic—but also realistic—measure of safety than the current ratio, because it ignores sluggish, hard-toliquidate current assets like inventory and notes receivable. Here’s the formula:
(Cash + Accounts receivable + marketable securities) / (Current liabilities)

See quick ratio

## acid test ratio (also called the quick ratio)

The sum of cash, accounts receivable, and short-term marketable
investments (if any) is divided by
total current liabilities to compute this ratio. Suppose that the short-term
creditors were to pounce on a business and not agree to roll over the
debts owed to them by the business. In this rather extreme scenario, the
acid test ratio reveals whether its cash and near-cash assets are enough
to pay its short-term current liabilities. This ratio is an extreme test that
is not likely to be imposed on a business unless it is in financial straits.
This ratio is quite relevant when a business is in a liquidation situation
or bankruptcy proceedings.

## Adjusted Cash Flow Provided by Continuing Operations

Cash flow provided by operating
activities adjusted to provide a more recurring, sustainable measure. Adjustments to reported cash
provided by operating activities are made to remove such nonrecurring cash items as: the operating
component of discontinued operations, income taxes on items classified as investing or financing activities, income tax benefits from nonqualified employee stock options, the cash effects of purchases and sales of trading securities for nonfinancial firms, capitalized expenditures, and other nonrecurring cash inflows and outflows.

## Appraisal ratio

The signal-to-noise ratio of an analyst's forecasts. The ratio of alpha to residual standard
deviation.

## Articles of incorporation

Legal document establishing a corporation and its structure and purpose.

## Asset activity ratios

ratios that measure how effectively the firm is managing its assets.

## Asset/equity ratio

The ratio of total assets to stockholder equity.

## asset turnover ratio

A broad-gauge ratio computed by dividing annual
sales revenue by total assets. It is a rough measure of the sales-generating
power of assets. The idea is that assets are used to make sales, and the
sales should lead to profit. The ultimate test is not sales revenue on
assets, but the profit earned on assets as measured by the return on
assets (ROA) ratio.

## Auction markets

markets in which the prevailing price is determined through the free interaction of
prospective buyers and sellers, as on the floor of the stock exchange.

## Basic Earnings Power Ratio

Percentage of earnings relative to total assets; indication of how
effectively assets are used to generate earnings. It is calculated by
dividing earnings before interest and taxes by the book value of all
assets.

## Bear market

Any market in which prices are in a declining trend.

## bear market

A market in which stock or bond prices are generally
falling.

## Bear Market

A prolonged period of falling stock market prices.

## Benefit Ratio Method

The proportion of unemployment benefits paid to a company’s
former employees during the measurement period, divided by the total
payroll during the period. This calculation is used by states to determine the unemployment
contribution rate to charge employers.

## Benefit Wage Ratio Method

The proportion of total taxable wages for laid off
employees during the measurement period divided by the total payroll during
the period. This calculation is used by states to determine the unemployment
contribution rate to charge employers.

## Black market

An illegal market.

## Book

cash A firm's cash balance as reported in its financial statements. Also called ledger cash.

## Book-entry securities

The Treasury and federal agencies are moving to a book-entry system in which securities are not represented by engraved pieces of paper but are maintained in computerized records at the
Fed in the names of member banks, which in turn keep records of the securities they own as well as those they
are holding for customers. In the case of other securities where a book-entry has developed, engraved
securities do exist somewhere in quite a few cases. These securities do not move from holder to holder but are
usually kept in a central clearinghouse or by another agent.

## Book Income

Pretax income reported on the income statement.

## Book inventory

The amount of money invested in inventory, as per a company’s
accounting records. It is comprised of the beginning inventory balance, plus the
cost of any receipts, less the cost of sold or scrapped inventory. It may be significantly
different from the actual on-hand inventory, if the two are not periodically
reconciled.

## Book profit

The cumulative book income plus any gain or loss on disposition of the assets on termination of the SAT.

## book rate of return

Accounting income divided by book value.
Also called accounting rate of return.

## Book Returns

book yield is the investment income earned in a year on a portfolio of assets purchased over a number of years and at different interest rates, divided by the book value of those assets.

## Book runner

The managing underwriter for a new issue. The book runner maintains the book of securities sold.

## Book value

A company's book value is its total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities, such as debt. A
company's book value might be more or less than its market value.

## BOOK VALUE

An asset’s cost basis minus accumulated depreciation.

## Book Value

The value of an asset as carried on the balance sheet of a
company. In reference to the value of a company, it is the net worth
(equity) of the company.

## Book value

An asset’s original cost, less any depreciation that has been subsequently incurred.

## book value

Net worth of the firm’s assets or liabilities according
to the balance sheet.

## book value and book value per share

Generally speaking, these terms
refer to the balance sheet value of an asset (or less often of a liability) or
the balance sheet value of owners’ equity per share. Either term emphasizes
that the amount recorded in the accounts or on the books of a business
is the value being used. The total of the amounts reported for
owners’ equity in its balance sheet is divided by the number of stock
shares of a corporation to determine the book value per share of its capital
stock.

## BOOK VALUE OF COMMON STOCK

The theoretical amount per share that each stockholder would receive if a company’s assets were sold on the balance sheet’s date. book value equals:
(Stockholders’ equity) / (Common stock shares outstanding)

## Book value per share

The ratio of stockholder equity to the average number of common shares. book value
per share should not be thought of as an indicator of economic worth, since it reflects accounting valuation
(and not necessarily market valuation).

## Book Value per Share

The book value of a company divided by the number of shares
outstanding

## Brokered market

A market where an intermediary offers search services to buyers and sellers.

## Bull market

Any market in which prices are in an upward trend.

## bull market

A market in which stock or bond prices are generally rising.

## Bull Market

A prolonged period of rising stock market prices.

## Bulldog market

The foreign market in the United Kingdom.

Better known as CDIC, this is an organization which insures qualifying deposits and GICs at savings institutions, mainly banks and trust companys, which belong to the CDIC for amounts up to \$60,000 and for terms of up to five years. Many types of deposits are not insured, such as mortgage-backed deposits, annuities of duration of more than five years, and mutual funds.

## Capital market

The market for trading long-term debt instruments (those that mature in more than one year).

## Capital market

The market in which investors buy and sell shares of companies, normally associated with a Stock Exchange.

## Capital Market

A market that specializes in trading long-term, relatively high risk
securities

## Capital Market

The market in which savings are made available to those needing funds to undertake investment projects. A financial market in which longer-term (maturity greater than one year) bonds and stocks are traded.

## Capital market efficiency

Reflects the relative amount of wealth wasted in making transactions. An efficient
capital market allows the transfer of assets with little wealth loss. See: efficient market hypothesis.

## Capital market imperfections view

The view that issuing debt is generally valuable but that the firm's
optimal choice of capital structure is a dynamic process that involves the other views of capital structure (net
corporate/personal tax, agency cost, bankruptcy cost, and pecking order), which result from considerations of
asymmetric information, asymmetric taxes, and transaction costs.

## Capital market line (CML)

The line defined by every combination of the risk-free asset and the market portfolio.

## capital markets

markets for long-term financing.

## Capital rationing

Placing one or more limits on the amount of new investment undertaken by a firm, either
by using a higher cost of capital, or by setting a maximum on parts of, and/or the entirety of, the capital
budget.

## capital rationing

a condition that exists when there is an
upper-dollar constraint on the amount of capital available
to commit to capital asset acquisition

## capital rationing

Limit set on the amount of funds available for investment.

## Capitalization ratios

Also called financial leverage ratios, these ratios compare debt to total capitalization
and thus reflect the extent to which a corporation is trading on its equity. Capitalization ratios can be
interpreted only in the context of the stability of industry and company earnings and cash flow.

## Cash flow coverage ratio

The number of times that financial obligations (for interest, principal payments,
preferred stock dividends, and rental payments) are covered by earnings before interest, taxes, rental
payments, and depreciation.

## Cash flow from operations

A firm's net cash inflow resulting directly from its regular operations
(disregarding extraordinary items such as the sale of fixed assets or transaction costs associated with issuing
securities), calculated as the sum of net income plus non-cash expenses that were deducted in calculating net
income.

## Cash Flow–to–Income Ratio (CFI)

Adjusted cash flow provided by continuing operations
divided by adjusted income from continuing operations.

## CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATIONS

A section on the cash-flow Stockholders’ equity statement that shows how much cash came into a company and how much went out during the normal course of business.

## Cash markets

Also called spot markets, these are markets that involve the immediate delivery of a security
or instrument.
Related: derivative markets.

## Cash ratio

The proportion of a firm's assets held as cash.

## Cash Ratio

ratio of cash and cash equivalents to liabilities; in the case of a bank, the ratio of cash to total deposit liabilities.

## Common market

An agreement between two or more countries that permits the free movement of capital
and labor as well as goods and services.

## Common stock market

The market for trading equities, not including preferred stock.

## Common stock ratios

ratios that are designed to measure the relative claims of stockholders to earnings
(cash flow per share), and equity (book value per share) of a firm.

## Complete capital market

A market in which there is a distinct marketable security for each and every
possible outcome.

## Concentration account

A single centralized account into which funds collected at regional locations
(lockboxes) are transferred.

## concentration banking

System whereby customers make payments to a regional collection center which transfers funds to
a principal bank.

## Concentration services

Movement of cash from different lockbox locations into a single concentration
account from which disbursements and investments are made.

## Configuration audit

A review of all engineering documentation used as the basis
for a manufactured product to see if the documentation accurately represents
the finished product.

## Configuration control

Verifying that a delivered product matches authorizing
engineering documentation. This also refers to engineering changes made subsequent
to the initial product release.

## contribution margin ratio

the proportion of each revenue dollar remaining after variable costs have been covered;
computed as contribution margin divided by sales

## Controlled foreign corporation (CFC)

A foreign corporation whose voting stock is more than 50% owned
by U.S. stockholders, each of whom owns at least 10% of the voting power.

## Conversion ratio

The number of shares of common stock that the security holder will receive from
exercising the call option of a convertible security.

## Corner A Market

To purchase enough of the available supply of a commodity or stock in order to
manipulate its price.

## Corporation

A legal "person" that is separate and distinct from its owners. A corporation is allowed to own
assets, incur liabilities, and sell securities, among other things.

## Corporation

A legal entity, organized under state laws, whose investors purchase
shares of stock as evidence of ownership in it. A corporation is a legal entity, which
eliminates much of the liability for the corporation’s actions from its investors.

## corporation

Business owned by stockholders who are not personally

## Cost-benefit ratio

The net present value of an investment divided by the investment's initial cost. Also called
the profitability index.

## Coverage ratios

ratios used to test the adequacy of cash flows generated through earnings for purposes of
meeting debt and lease obligations, including the interest coverage ratio and the fixed charge coverage ratio.

## Credit Rationing

Restriction of loans by lenders so that not all borrowers willing to pay the current interest rate are able to obtain loans.

## Current ratio

Indicator of short-term debt paying ability. Determined by dividing current assets by current
liabilities. The higher the ratio, the more liquid the company.

## Current ratio

A ratio that shows how many times a company could pay its current debts if it used its current assets to pay them. The formula:
(Current assets) / (Current liabilities)

## current ratio

Calculated to assess the short-term solvency, or debt-paying
ability of a business, it equals total current assets divided by total current
liabilities. Some businesses remain solvent with a relatively low current
ratio; others could be in trouble with an apparently good current ratio.
The general rule is that the current ratio should be 2:1 or higher, but
please take this with a grain of salt, because current ratios vary widely
from industry to industry.

## Current Ratio

A measure of the ability of a company to use its current assets to
pay its current liabilities. It is calculated by dividing the total current
assets by the total current liabilities.

## Current Ratio

Current assets divided by current liabilities. This ratio indicates the extent to which the claims of short-term creditors are covered by assets expected to be converted to cash in the near future.

## Customary payout ratios

A range of payout ratios that is typical based on an analysis of comparable firms.

## Days' sales in inventory ratio

The average number of days' worth of sales that is held in inventory.

## Dealer market

A market where traders specializing in particular commodities buy and sell assets for their
own accounts.

## Debt/equity ratio

Indicator of financial leverage. Compares assets provided by creditors to assets provided
by shareholders. Determined by dividing long-term debt by common stockholder equity.

## Debt/Equity Ratio

A comparison of debt to equity in a company's capital structure.

## Debt market

The market for trading debt instruments.

## Debt ratio

Total debt divided by total assets.

## Debt Ratio

The percentage of debt that is used in the total capitalization of a
company. It is calculated by dividing the total book value of the
debt by the book value of all assets.

## Debt-service coverage ratio

Earnings before interest and income taxes plus one-third rental charges, divided
by interest expense plus one-third rental charges plus the quantity of principal repayments divided by one
minus the tax rate.