Financial Terms Common stock equivalent

# Definition of Common stock equivalent

## Common stock equivalent

A convertible security that is traded like an equity issue because the optioned

# Related Terms:

## Acquisition of stock

A merger or consolidation in which an acquirer purchases the acquiree's stock.

## Adjustable rate preferred stock (ARPS)

Publicly traded issues that may be collateralized by mortgages and MBSs.

## American Stock Exchange (AMEX)

The second-largest stock exchange in the United States. It trades
mostly in small-to medium-sized companies.

## Auction rate preferred stock (ARPS)

Floating rate preferred stock, the dividend on which is adjusted every
seven weeks through a Dutch auction.

## Beta equation (Stocks)

The beta of a stock is determined as follows:
[(n) (sum of (xy)) ]-[(sum of x) (sum of y)]
[(n) (sum of (xx)) ]-[(sum of x) (sum of x)]
where: n = # of observations (24-60 months)
x = rate of return for the S&P 500 Index
y = rate of return for the stock

## Bond-equivalent basis

The method used for computing the bond-equivalent yield.

## Bond equivalent yield

Bond yield calculated on an annual percentage rate method. Differs from annual
effective yield.

## Bond-equivalent yield

The annualized yield to maturity computed by doubling the semiannual yield.

## Bond Equivalent Yield

Bond yield calculated on an annual percentage rate method

## BOOK VALUE OF COMMON STOCK

The theoretical amount per share that each stockholder would receive if a company’s assets were sold on the balance sheet’s date. Book value equals:
(stockholders’ equity) / (common stock shares outstanding)

## capital stock

corporation may issue more than one class of capital stock shares.
One class may give voting privileges in the election of the directors of the
corporation while the other class does not. One class (called preferred
stock) may entitle a certain amount of dividends per share before cash
dividends can be paid on the other class (usually called common stock).
stock shares may have a minimum value at which they have to be issued
(called the par value), or stock shares can be issued for any amount
(called no-par stock). stock shares may be traded on public markets such
as the New York stock Exchange or over the Nasdaq network. There are
on this number). In this regard, I find it very interesting that there are
more than 8,000 mutual funds that invest in stocks.

## Capital Stock

The total amount of plant, equipment, and other physical capital.

## CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS

The balance in a company’s checking account(s) plus short-term or temporary investments (sometimes called “marketable securities”), which are highly liquid.

## Cash and equivalents

The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a
company. Usually includes bank accounts and marketable securities, such as government bonds and Banker's
Acceptances. Cash equivalents on balance sheets include securities (e.g., notes) that mature within 90 days.

## Cash equivalent

A short-term security that is sufficiently liquid that it may be considered the financial
equivalent of cash.

## Cash-equivalent items

Temporary investments of currently excess cash in short-term, high-quality
investment media such as treasury bills and Banker's Acceptances.

## Cash Equivalents

Highly liquid, fixed-income investments with original maturities of three months or less.

## Cash Equivalents

Instruments or investments of such high liquidity and safety that they are virtually equal to cash.

## Cash flow per common share

Cash flow from operations minus preferred stock dividends, divided by the
number of common shares outstanding.

## Certainty equivalent

An amount that would be accepted in lieu of a chance at a possible higher, but
uncertain, amount.

## Common-base-year analysis

The representing of accounting information over multiple years as percentages
of amounts in an initial year.
common-size analysis The representing of balance sheet items as percentages of assets and of income
statement items as percentages of sales.

## common body of knowledge (CBK)

the minimum set of knowledge needed by a person to function effectively in a particular field

## Common market

An agreement between two or more countries that permits the free movement of capital
and labor as well as goods and services.

## Common Shares

Are equity instruments that take no security against assets, have no fixed terms of repayment and pay no fixed dividends.

## common-size balance sheet

Balance sheet that presents items as a percentage of total assets.

## common-size income statement

Income statement that presents items as a percentage of revenues.

## Common stock

These are securities that represent equity ownership in a company. common shares let an
investor vote on such matters as the election of directors. They also give the holder a share in a company's
profits via dividend payments or the capital appreciation of the security.

## Common stock

Shares of ownership sold to the public.

## Common Stock

A financial security that represents an ownership claim on the
assets and earnings of a company. This claim is valid after the
claims of the debt providers and preferred stockholders have been
satisfied.

## common stock

Ownership shares in a publicly held corporation.

## Common Stock

That part of the capital stock of a corporation that carries voting rights and represents
the last claim on assets and dividends.

## Common stock market

The market for trading equities, not including preferred stock.

## Common stock/other equity

Value of outstanding common shares at par, plus accumulated retained
earnings. Also called shareholders' equity.

## Common stock ratios

Ratios that are designed to measure the relative claims of stockholders to earnings
(cash flow per share), and equity (book value per share) of a firm.

## Conflict between bondholders and stockholders

These two groups may have interests in a corporation that
conflict. Sources of conflict include dividends, distortion of investment, and underinvestment. Protective
covenants work to resolve these conflicts.

## Consigned stocks

Inventories owned by a company, but located on the premises
of its agents or distributors.

## Convertible exchangeable preferred stock

Convertible preferred stock that may be exchanged, at the
issuer's option, into convertible bonds that have the same conversion features as the convertible preferred
stock.

## Convertible preferred stock

Preferred stock that can be converted into common stock at the option of the holder.

## Corporate taxable equivalent

Rate of return required on a par bond to produce the same after-tax yield to
maturity that the premium or discount bond quoted would.

## Cost of Common Stock

The rate of return required by the investors in the common stock of
the company. A component of the cost of capital.

## Cost of Preferred Stock

The rate of return required by the investors in the preferred stock of
a company. A component of the cost of capital.

## Coupon equivalent yield

True interest cost expressed on the basis of a 365-day year.

## Cumulative preferred stock

Preferred stock whose dividends accrue, should the issuer not make timely
dividend payments. Related: non-cumulative preferred stock.

## Departmental stocks

The informal and frequently unauthorized retention of excess inventory on the shop floor, which is used as buffer safety stock.

## Direct stock-purchase programs

The purchase by investors of securities directly from the issuer.

## Dividend yield (Stocks)

Indicated yield represents annual dividends divided by current stock price.

## Earnings per share of common stock

How much profit a company made on each share of common stock this year.

## Employee stock fund

A firm-sponsored program that enables employees to purchase shares of the firm's
common stock on a preferential basis.

## Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP)

A company contributes to a trust fund that buys stock on behalf of
employees.

## Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP)

a profit-sharing compensation program in which investments are made in
the securities of the employer

## Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP)

A fund containing company stock and owned by employees, paid for by ongoing contributions by the employer.

## Equivalent annual annuity

The equivalent amount per year for some number of years that has a present
value equal to a given amount.

## Equivalent annual benefit

The equivalent annual annuity for the net present value of an investment project.

## Equivalent annual cash flow

Annuity with the same net present value as the company's proposed investment.

## Equivalent annual cost

The equivalent cost per year of owning an asset over its entire life.

## equivalent annual cost

The cost per period with the same present value as the cost of buying and operating a machine.

## Equivalent bond yield

Annual yield on a short-term, non-interest bearing security calculated so as to be
comparable to yields quoted on coupon securities.

## Equivalent loan

Given the after-tax stream associated with a lease, the maximum amount of conventional
debt that the same period-by-period after-tax debt service stream is capable of supporting.

## Equivalent taxable yield

The yield that must be offered on a taxable bond issue to give the same after-tax
yield as a tax-exempt issue.

## equivalent units of production (EUP)

an approximation of the number of whole units of output that could have been
produced during a period from the actual effort expended
during that period; used in process costing systems to assign
costs to production

## Exchange of stock

Acquisition of another company by purchase of its stock in exchange for cash or shares.

## Fixed-income equivalent

Also called a busted convertible, a convertible security that is trading like a straight
security because the optioned common stock is trading low.

## Floor stocks

Low-cost, high-usage inventory items stored near the shop floor,
which the production staff can use at will without a requisition and which are
expensed at the time of receipt, rather than being accounted for through a formal
inventory database.

## Growth stock

common stock of a company that has an opportunity to invest money and earn more than the
opportunity cost of capital.

## Heavenly Parachute Stock Option

A nonqualified stock option that allows a deceased option holder’s estate up to three years in which to exercise his or her
options.

## Incentive Stock Option

An option to purchase company stock that is not taxable
to the employee at the time it is granted nor at the time when the employee
eventually exercises the option to buy stock.

## Income stock

common stock with a high dividend yield and few profitable investment opportunities.

## Letter stock

Privately placed common stock, so-called because the SEC requires a letter from the purchaser
stating that the stock is not intended for resale.

## Listed stocks

stocks that are traded on an exchange.

## Listed stocks

stocks that are traded on an exchange.

## Make-to-stock

A production scheduling system under which products are completed
before the receipt of customer orders, which are filled from stock.

## Margin account (Stocks)

A leverageable account in which stocks can be purchased for a combination of
cash and a loan. The loan in the margin account is collateralized by the stock and, if the value of the stock
drops sufficiently, the owner will be asked to either put in more cash, or sell a portion of the stock. Margin
rules are federally regulated, but margin requirements and interest may vary among broker/dealers.

## New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)

Also known as the Big Board or The Exhange. More than 2,00 common
and preferred stocks are traded. The exchange is the older in the United States, founded in 1792, and the
largest. It is lcoated on Wall Street in New York City

## No par value stock

stock issued by the company that does not have an arbitrary value (par value) assigned to it.

## Non-cumulative preferred stock

Preferred stock whose holders must forgo dividend payments when the
company misses a dividend payment.
Related: Cumulative preferred stock

## Nonqualified Stock Option

A stock option not given any favorable tax treatment
under the Internal Revenue Code. The option is taxed when it is exercised,
based on the difference between the option price and the fair market
value of the stock on that day.

## Outbound stock point

A designated inventory location on the shop floor between
operations where inventory is stockpiled until needed by the next operation.

A securities exchange where American and European foreign
currency options on spot exchange rates are traded.

## Preference stock

A security that ranks junior to preferred stock but senior to common stock in the right to
receive payments from the firm; essentially junior preferred stock.

## Preferred equity redemption stock (PERC)

Preferred stock that converts automatically into equity at a
stated date. A limit is placed on the value of the shares the investor receives.

## Preferred stock

A security that shows ownership in a corporation and gives the holder a claim, prior to the
claim of common stockholders, on earnings and also generally on assets in the event of liquidation. Most
preferred stock pays a fixed dividend that is paid prior to the common stock dividend, stated in a dollar
amount or as a percentage of par value. This stock does not usually carry voting rights. The stock shares
characteristics of both common stock and debt.

## Preferred Stock

A type of equity security where holders have a claim on the assets
and earnings of a company after the debt providers but before the
holders of common stock. Preferred stock generally pays a fixed
or floating rate dividend each year.

## Preferred stock

A type of stock that usually pays a fixed dividend prior to any distributions
to the holders of common stock. In the event of liquidation, it must be paid
off before common stock. It can, but rarely does, have voting rights.

## preferred stock

stock that takes priority over common stock in regard to dividends.

## Preferred stock agreement

A contract for preferred stock.

## Preferred Stock Stock that has a claim on assets and dividends of a corporation that are prior

to that of common stock. Preferred stock typically does not carry the right to vote.

## RATE OF RETURN ON STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

The percentage return or profit that management made on each dollar stockholders invested in a company. Here’s how you figure it:
(Net income) / (stockholders’ equity)

## RATIO OF DEBT TO STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

A ratio that shows which group—creditors or stockholders—has the biggest stake in or the most control of a company:
(Total liabilities) / (stockholders’ equity)

## Redeemable Preferred Stock

A preferred stock issue that must be redeemed by the issuing enterprise or is redeemable at the option of the investor. Considered a debt security for accountingpurposes.

## Repurchase of stock

Device to pay cash to firm's shareholders that provides more preferable tax treatment
for shareholders than dividends. Treasury stock is the name given to previously issued stock that has been
repurchased by the firm. A repurchase is achieved through either a dutch auction, open market, or tender offer.

## Return on Common Equity Ratio

A measure of the percentage return earned on the value of the
common equity invested in the company. It is calculated by
dividing the net income available for distribution to shareholders
by the book value of the common equity.

## Reverse stock split

A proportionate decrease in the number of shares, but not the value of shares of stock
held by shareholders. Shareholders maintain the same percentage of equity as before the split. For example, a
1-for-3 split would result in stockholders owning 1 share for every 3 shares owned before the split. After the
reverse split, the firm's stock price is, in this example, worth three times the pre-reverse split price. A firm
generally institutes a reverse split to boost its stock's market price and attract investors.

## safety stock

a buffer level of inventory kept on hand by a company in the event of fluctuating usage or unusual delays in lead time

## Safety stock

Extra inventory kept on hand to guard against requirements
fluctuations.

## Stated value stock

stock issued by the company that does not have a par value, but does have a stated value. For accounting purposes, stated value is functionally equivalent to par value.

## Stock

Ownership of a corporation which is represented by shares which represent a piece of the corporation's
assets and earnings.

## STOCK

Certificates that signify ownership in a corporation. A share of stock represents a claim on a portion of the company’s assets.

See inventory.

## Stock

Units of ownership, also called shares, in a public corporation. Owners of such units, called shareholders, share in the earnings of the company through dividends. The price of a stock is determined by supply and demand in the stock market.